The Effect of Chemotherapy on Clinical, Haematological and Biochemical Profile in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy at Cape Coast Teaching Hospital; A Longitudinal Study

Main Article Content

Rebecca Peniel Storph
Frank N. Ghartey
Richard K. D. Ephraim
Enoch Mensah
Martin Mornah
Linda Ahenkorah-Fondjo
David L. Simpong
Charlotte Addai
Bright Kobena Segu Domson
Joseph Benjamin Baidoo
Patrick Adu

Abstract

Background: People with primary invasive breast cancer receive both local (surgery and radiation therapy) and systemic treatment (chemotherapy and hormonal therapy). However, there are substantial short-and long-term side effects from chemotherapy as documented in several studies. This study assessed the effects of chemotherapy on clinical, haematological and biochemical profile of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital.


Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted in the female surgical ward of the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH). We randomly sampled 51 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and scheduled to start chemotherapy and recorded their demographic, clinical and therapeutic data. Blood was collected for haematological profiles [haemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell
(WBC) count, platelets (PLT) and biochemical analysis (lipid profile, uric acid and creatinine) for day 1, day 21 and day 42 of their chemotherapy cycles.


Results: Majority of the participants were within 46-60 years, married, overweight and had informal employment. Throughout chemotherapy cycles, systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased till after the third cycle (P=0.026), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) significantly decreased after second cycle but increased slightly after the third cycle (P=0.029). Hemoglobin though insignificant, decreased after the second cycle but increased sharply after the third cycle (P=0.281). White blood cells (WBC) significantly decreased throughout cycles (P=0.008) whereas high density lipoprotein (P=0.014) increased throughout cycles- Uric acid (P=0.852) and creatinine (P=1.000). were maintained throughout cycles


Conclusion: Throughout cycles, chemotherapy had significant adverse effect on the clinical profile (systolic and diastolic blood pressure), white blood cells (WBC) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) in patients undergoing treatment.

Keywords:
Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hematological profile, breast cancer

Article Details

How to Cite
Storph, R., Ghartey, F., Ephraim, R. K., Mensah, E., Mornah, M., Ahenkorah-Fondjo, L., Simpong, D., Addai, C., Domson, B. K., Baidoo, J., & Adu, P. (2019). The Effect of Chemotherapy on Clinical, Haematological and Biochemical Profile in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy at Cape Coast Teaching Hospital; A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 9(2), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/jcti/2019/v9i230104
Section
Original Research Article

References

Akram M, Iqbal M, Daniyal M, Khan AU. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer. Biological Research. 2017; 50(1):33.

Saunders C, Jassal S. Breast cancer; 2009.

WHO: World Cancer Report 2014. In.; 2014.

Thomas AS, Kidwell KM, Oppong JK, Adjei EK, Osei-Bonsu E, Boahene A, Jiggae E, Gyan K, Merajver SD. Breast cancer in Ghana: Demonstrating the need for population-based cancer registries in low- and middle-income countries. American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2017;3(6): 765-772.

Shapiro CL, Recht A. Side effects of adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 2001;344(26): 1997-2008.

Crawford J, Dale DC, Lyman GH. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia; risks, consequences, and new directions for its management. American Cancer Society. 2003;228-237.

Henderson IC, et al. Improved outcomes from adding sequential paclitaxel but not from escalating doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2003; 21(6):1-9.

Partridge AH, Harold J, Burstein EP. Winer: Side effects of chemotherapy and combined chemohormonal therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs. 2001;30:135–142.

Thangaraju M, Kumar K, Gandhirajan R, Sachdanandam P. Effect of tamoxifen on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in post-menopausal women with breast Cancer. Cancer. 1994;73.

Love RR, Leventhal H, Easterling DV, Nerenz DR. Side effects and emotional distress during cancer chemotherapy. Cancer. 1989;63:604-612.

Fezeu L, Balkau B, Kengne AP, Sobngwi E, Mbanya JC. Metabolic syndrome in a sub-Saharan African setting: Central obesity may be the key determinant. Atherosclerosis. 2007;193(1):70-76.

Akins JR, Waldrep K, Bernert Jr JT. The estimation of total serum lipids by a completely enzymatic ‘summation’method. Clinica Chimica Acta. 1989;184(3):219-226.

Junge W, Wilke B, Halabi A, Klein G. Determination of reference intervals for serum creatinine, creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance with an enzymatic and a modified Jaffe method. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2004;344(1-2):137-148.

Liao F, Zhao YS, Zhao LN, Tao J, Zhu XY, Liu L. Evaluation of a kinetic uricase method for serum uric acid assay by predicting background absorbance of uricase reaction solution with an integrated method. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 2006;7(6):497- 502.

Silverberg E, Lubera J. Cancer statistics. CA—A Journal for Clinician. 1986;36:9- 25.

Henderson IC, Berry DA, Demetri GD, Cirrincione CT, Goldstein LJ, Martino S, Ingle JN, Cooper MR, Hayes DF, Tkaczuk KH. Improved outcomes from adding sequential paclitaxel but not from escalating doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2003;21(6): 976-983.

Partridge AH, Burstein HJ, Winer EP. Side effects of chemotherapy and combined chemohormonal therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer. JNCI Monographs. 2001;30:135-142.

Leanna JS. Immune defects in breast cancer patients after radiotherapy. Journal of the Society for Intergrative Oncology. 2008;110-121.

Owiredu W, Donkor S, Addai BW, Amidu N. Serum lipid profile of breast cancer patients. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2009;12(4):332.

Moorman PG, Millikan RC, Newman B. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer among african-american women and white women. Journal of the National Medical Association. 2001;93:329-334.

Jasek AM, Day HJ. Acute spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome. American Journal of Hematology. 1994;47(2):129-131.