Body Mass Index and Age Correlation with Prostate-specific Antigen Density as Prostate Cancer Risk Indicators in a Screened Male University Population in Nigeria: A Pilot Study

Main Article Content

Eyam Sunday Eyam
Ima-Abasi E. Bassey
Edoise M. Isiwele
Eyam Lilian Eberechukwu

Abstract

Background: Prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) is one of the means of improving PSA sensitivity as a marker of a prostate cancer diagnosis. However, this ability is perceived to be obscured by certain factors such as high body mass index and age in Caucasian and western populations, which tends to reduce its sensitivity and lead to misclassification of at-risk patients for prostate cancer.

Aim: We studied the correlation of body mass index (BMI) and age with prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) as indicators of prostate cancer risk in a screened male population(40 years and above) in the University of Calabar, Nigeria.

Study Design: A cross-sectional analytical study with consecutive participant recruitment.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the University of Calabar Medical centre during a medical outreach.

Materials and Methods: The study involved sixty-one (61) healthy male participants. BMI was mathematically determined from the weight and height and was categorized as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity based on the WHO classification with values of <18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25.0-29.9, and ≥30 (Kg/m2) respectively. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for PSA and transrectal ultrasound scan was done to estimate the prostate volume and was used to calculate the prostate-specific antigen density.

Results: Over 67% of participants had PSA values below 4.0 ng/ml, 14.8% between 4.0-10.0 ng/ml, and 18% above 10.0 ng/ml. Body mass index (BMI) assessment revealed that 1.6% of the sampled population had BMI <18.5 Kg/m2, 32.8% had BMI between 18.5 Kg/m2 and 24.9 Kg/m2, while 50.8% were noticed to have a BMI of between 25.0 Kg/m2 and 29.9 Kg/m2, and 14.8% had BMI of 30 Kg/m2 and above.

Conclusion: There was an inverse correlation of BMI with prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) and a direct correlation of age with PSAD in this study of Nigerian men.

Keywords:
Age, body mass index, prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific antigen density, University of Calabar.

Article Details

How to Cite
Eyam, E. S., Bassey, I.-A. E., Isiwele, E. M., & Eberechukwu, E. L. (2019). Body Mass Index and Age Correlation with Prostate-specific Antigen Density as Prostate Cancer Risk Indicators in a Screened Male University Population in Nigeria: A Pilot Study. Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 9(3), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/jcti/2019/v9i330107
Section
Original Research Article

References

Zhang J, Ma M, Nan X, Sheng B. Obesity inversely correlates with prostate-specific antigen levels in a population with normal screening results of prostate cancer in northwestern China. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 49(8).

Bonn SE, Sjölander A, Tillander A, Wiklund F, Grönberg H, Bälter K. Body mass index in relation to serum prostate‐specific antigen levels and prostate cancer risk. International Journal of Cancer. 2016; 139(1):50-57.

Kubota Y, Seike K, Maeda S, Shinohara Y, Iwata M, Sugimoto N. Relationship between prostate‐specific antigen and obesity in prostate cancer screening: Analysis of a large cohort in Japan. International Journal of Urology. 2011; 18(1):72-75.

Mario BO, Manuel V, Renata M, Simona C, Giovanni C, Fabrizio F. Relationship between prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and volume of the prostate in benign prostatic hyperplasia in the elderly. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 2003; 47(3): 207-211.

Abdo AK, Mehdi S, Seyyed MTA, Mehrzad L, Mehrdad A, Ali A et al. Age specific reference levels of serum prostate-sppecific antigen, prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen density in healthy Iranian men. Iranian Journal of Immunology. 2009;6:40-48.

Emeka IU, Ikenna IN, Francis OO, Fred OU, Adesina SO, Samuel RO, et al. Prostate-specific antigen density values among patients with symptomatic prostatic enlargement in Nigeria. World Journal of surgical Oncology.2016;14:174.

Lujan M, Paez A, Llanes L, Miravalles E, Berenquer A. Prostate specific antigen density. Is there a role for this parameter when screening for prostate cancer? Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. 2001;4:146-149.

Kim JH, Doo SW, Yang WJ, Song YS, Kwon SS. Prostate-specific antigen density: A better index of obesity-related PSA decrease in ostensibly healthy Korean men with a PSA< 3.0 ng/mL. Urology. 2013;81(4):849-852.

Loeb S. Prostate Health Index (PHI): golden bullet or just another prostate cancer marker? European Urology. 2013; 63(6):995-996.

Khezri AA, Shirazi M, Ayatollahi SMT, Lotfi M, Askarian M, Ariafar A, et al. Age specific reference levels of serum prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume and Prostate Specific Antigen Density in Healthy Iranian Men. Iranian Journal of Immunology. 2009;6(1):40-48.

Arvind PG, Mahesh RD, Manohar T and Sharad B. Age-specific prostate specific antigen and prostate specific antigen density values in a community-based Indian population. Indain J Urol. 2007; 23(2):122-125.

Shanggar K, Kia FQ, Retnagowri R Azad HAR, Norman D. Revisiting prostate specific antigen density (PSAD): A prospective analysis in predicting the histology of prostate biopsy. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2018;11(4):3873-3879

Carmen R, Stephen JF, Anusila D, Eric JJ, Marjorie LM, Alpha VP et al. Body mass index, weight change, and risk of prostate cancer in the cancer prevention study ii nutrition cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(1):63-69.