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Objective: To describe the epidemiological and histopathological aspects of stomach cancer in Cameroon.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive study of histologically confirmed stomach cancers recruited from histopathology laboratories in Cameroon spread over a period of 13 years (2004-2016). The variables studied were: the frequency, age, gender, risk factors, location and histopathologic type.
Results: At the end of our study, 574 cancers of the stomach were recorded. Men were predominantly affected with 312 cases (54.36%), the sex ratio of men to 1.19. The mean age of onset was 52.95 +/- 16.27 years for all sexes, with extremes ranging from 20 months to 92 years. Patients aged between 50 and 59 years were the predominant age group (24.39%) compared to the other groups. Traders and retirees represented the most affected groups with 20.97% and 14.52% respectively. The main risk factors were: chronic Helicobacter gastritis Pylori 59.73%, chronic smoking 16.11% and chronic alcoholism in 7.12%. Upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy and histological examination was the main means of assertion, 84.18%. The antral location was the most represented with 52.67%. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type with 419 cases (72.99).
Conclusion: Gastric cancer is the first malignant tumor of the digestive tract in Cameroon. Its annual frequency increases since 2009. The mean age of onset is 52.95 years with a male predominance. Chronic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori is the main risk factor. The most common histological type is adenocarcinoma.