Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Oral and Maxillofacial Region: A 12-Year Analysis at a Tertiary Healthcare Facility from North-Western Nigeria

Mujtaba Bala *

Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah

Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju Taiwo

Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

Bandar Alyami

Department of preventive dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.

Bashar Muhammed Aliyu

Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria.

Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi

School of Health and Life Sciences, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom and Faculty of Dentistry, University of Puthisastra, Phnom Penh, Cambodia and School of Dentistry, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda and Campaign for Head and Neck Cancer Education (CHANCE) Programme, Cephas Health Research Initiative Inc, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Sadeeq Fawa Abubakar

Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria.

Abubakar Muhammad Kaura

Federal Medical Center, Gusau, Nigeria.

Lateef Alani Yekini

Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria.

Sufiyanu Umar Yabo

Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Background: Orofacial cancers remain a serious burden in developing countries largely due to scarcity of resources in both diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to present the pattern of clinical presentation and management of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral and maxillofacial region at a tertiary health care facility, Northwestern Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and maxillofacial regionseen in the past 12 years (January 2012 to January 2023). After obtaining ethical approval from the research and ethics committee of the institution, patients’ demographic characteristics, risk factors, sites, stage, histologic diagnosis, and treatment status were extracted from the patient's record. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 25 software.

Results: A total of 233 cases (114 (76.8%) males and 54 (23.2%) females) were analyzedin the age range of 20-80 years with a mean±SD of 52.98±16.08years. Most of the patients 174(74.7%) were farmers. The onset ranged from 6 weeks to 2 years. The main complaint of the patients were pain and swelling (132 (56.7%)). Extensive or multiplesites (72 (30.9%)) constitute the majority of the SCC. Well-differentiated SCC (133 (57.1%)) was the predominant diagnosis and, the majority (86 (36.9%)) were Stage IV lesions. The male patients were found to have more advanced disease compared to females with a statistically significant difference (p= 0.000). Surgery+ referral for chemotherapy/radiotherapy (125(57.1)) was the main treatment modality.

Conclusion: The well-differentiated SCC was thecommonest histologic subtype. Surgery and chemoradiation therapy were treatment modalities offered the patients especially with the early lesions and prompt initiation of treatment.

Keywords: Cancer, orofacial, squamous cell carcinoma, chemotherapy, radiotherapy


How to Cite

Bala , Mujtaba, Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah, Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju Taiwo, Bandar Alyami, Bashar Muhammed Aliyu, Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Sadeeq Fawa Abubakar, Abubakar Muhammad Kaura, Lateef Alani Yekini, and Sufiyanu Umar Yabo. 2023. “Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Oral and Maxillofacial Region: A 12-Year Analysis at a Tertiary Healthcare Facility from North-Western Nigeria”. Journal of Cancer and Tumor International 13 (3):19-27. https://doi.org/10.9734/jcti/2023/v13i3236.

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