Cervical Cancer in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South, Nigeria: A 5-Year Review

Main Article Content

D. O. Allagoa
L. Obagah
P. C. Oriji
E. S. Tekenah
C. Njoku
A. S. Afolabi
C. Ikoro
K. M. Mbah
T. J. Wagio
O. S. Ohaeri
O. Izevbigie
G. Atemie

Abstract

Background: Cervical cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in developing countries. The World Health Organisation estimated that there were about 570,000 new cases of cancer of the cervix in 2018 and about 311,000 women died of the disease.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of patients with cervical cancer at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study which involved all the patients with histologically confirmed cervical cancer managed at the gynaecological unit of the hospital from 1st January, 2016 to 31st December, 2020. Information was extracted from the gynaecological records and entered into a predesigned proforma. All available data were retrospectively analysed with SPSS version 23.0, and results were presented in tables and frequencies.

Results: There were 31 cases of cervical cancers out of the 2,478 gynaecological cases seen. The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.25%. About one-third of the women were in the sixth decade of life (32.3%). About half of the women were diagnosed at Stage 2 of the disease (51.6%) and squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 80.6% of the cancers. Radiotherapy was the most used treatment option (64.5%). About one-quarter died (25.8%).

Conclusion: Most of the patients in this study presented in the advanced stages of the disease, with death of about one-quarter of them. Prevention and early presentation to the hospital are key in the prevention of poor quality of life and deaths. All hands must be on deck to tackle this disease.

Keywords:
Cervical cancer, most common, developing countries, death

Article Details

How to Cite
Allagoa, D. O., Obagah, L., Oriji, P. C., Tekenah, E. S., Njoku, C., Afolabi, A. S., Ikoro, C., Mbah, K. M., Wagio, T. J., Ohaeri, O. S., Izevbigie, O., & Atemie, G. (2021). Cervical Cancer in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South, Nigeria: A 5-Year Review. Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 11(2), 28-36. https://doi.org/10.9734/jcti/2021/v11i230148
Section
Original Research Article

References

Kwame-Aryee R. Carcinoma of the cervix. In: Kwawukume EY, Ekele BA, Danso KA, Emuveyan EE, editors. Comprehensive Gynaecology in the tropics. 2nd ed. Accra, Ghana: G-Pak limited. 2017;565–581.

World Health Organisation. Cervical cancer; 201.
Available:https://www.who.int/health-topic s/cervical-cancer#tab=tab_1
Accessed April 18, 2021

Arbyn M, Weiderpass E, Bruni L, de Sanjosé S, Saraiya M, Ferlay J, et al. Estimates of incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in 2018: A worldwide analysis. The Lancet. 2020;8(2):191–203.

Goddy B, Kennedy NT, Michael O. Profile and retrospective analysis of the use of preventive strategies in patients with cervical cancer in South-South Nigeria. Nig Med J. 2015;56(2):109–112.

Eze JN, Emeka-Irem EN, Edegbe FO. A Six-Year Study of the Clinical Presentation of Cervical Cancer and the Management Challenges Encountered at a State Teaching Hospital in South-East Nigeria. Clin Med Insights Oncol. 2013;7: 151–158.

Ikechebelu JI, Onyiaorah IV, Ugboaja JO, Anyiam DC, Eleje GU. Clinicopathological analysis of cervical cancer seen in a tertiary health facility in Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2010; 30(3):299–301.

Ahmed SA, Sabitu K, Idris SH, Ahmed R. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women in Zaria, Nigeria. Nig Med J. 2013;54(5):316–319.

Eze JN, Umeora OU, Obuna JA, Egwuatu VE, Ejikeme BN. Cervical cancer awareness and cervical screening uptake at the Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Afikpo, South-East Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 2012;11(4):238–243.

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Progress in cervical screening in the UK. Scientific Impact. 2016;7.
Available:https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/scientific-impa ct-papers/sip_7-progress-in-cervical-screening.pdf
Accessed April 18, 2021.

SOGON Clinical Practice Guidelines. Prevention of cervical cancer; 2021.
Available: https://sogon.org/wp-content/ uploads/2019/02/SOGON-Cervical-Cancer-Prevention-Guidelines-FINAL-VE RSION.pdf
Accessed April 18, 2021.

Akinyemi AI, Isiugo-Abanihe, UC. Demographic dynamics and development in Nigeria. Afri Population Studies. 2014; 27(2):239–248.

The world factbook. Explore all countries – Nigeria, Africa; 2021.
Available:https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/nigeria/ Updated April 20, 2021.
Accessed April 22, 2021.

Lysonski S, Durvasula S. Nigeria in transition: acculturation to global consumer culture. J Consumer Marketing. 2013;30 (6):493–508.

Holschneider CH. Premalignant & Malignant disorders of the uterine cervix. In: Decherney AH, Nathan L, Laufer N, Roman AS, editors. Current Diagnosis and Treatment Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 11th ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. 2013;807–831.

Arbyn M, Autier P, Ferlay J. Burden of cervical cancer in the 27-member States of the European Union: estimates for 2004. Ann Oncol. 2007;18(8):1423–1425.

Musa J, Nankat J, Achenbach CJ, Shambe L, Taiwo BO. Cervical cancer survival in a resourse limited setting- North Central Nigeria. Infectious agent and cancer. 2016;11:15
DOI 10.11 86/13027-016-0062-0

Ntekim A. Cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. IntechOpen; 2012.
Available:https://www.intechopen.com/books/topics-on-cervical-cancer-with-an-advocacy-for-prevention/cervical-cancer-in-sub-sahara-africa.
Accessed April 18, 2021.

GLOBOCAN – International agency for research on cancer, Fact sheet, 2012.
Available:https://gco.iarc.fr/today/data/pdf/fact-sheets/cancers/cancer-fact-sheets-16.pdf Accessed April 17, 2021.

Yahya A, Mande AT. Awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and its screening methods among women attending primary healthcare centers in Zaria, North Western, Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. 2019;36:271–276.

Ijaiya MA, Aboyeji PA, Buhari MO. Cancer of the cervix in Ilorin. West Afri J Med. 2004; 23(4):319–322.

Azuonwu G, Timothy TE. Epidemiology of cancer of the cervix in Rivers State, Niger Delta. International Journal of Research and Oncology. 2020;3(3):1-12.

Oguntayo OA, Zayyan M. kolawole AOD, Adewoyi SA, Ismael H, Koledade K. Cancer of the cervix in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Ecancer medical science. 2011; 5:219–233.

World Health Organisation. WHO releases new estimates of the global burden of cervical cancer associated with HIV; 2020
Available:https://www.who.int/news/item/16-11-2020-who-releases-new-estimates-of-the-global-burden-of-cervical-cancer-asso ciated-with-hiv
Accessed April 18, 2021.

Cates W. Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Sex Transm Dis. 1999;26(4suppl):S2–S7.

World Health Organisation. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/human-papilloma virus-(hpv)-and-cervical-cancer Accessed April 18, 2021.

Ijaya MA, Aboyeji AP, Olatinwo AW, Buhari MO. Clinico-pathological presentation of primary cervical cancer seen in Ilorin, Nigeria. Niger J Surg Res. 2002;4:89-92.

Sule AA, OchIcho O. A histopathologic review of cervical cancer in Kano, Nigeria. Sahel Med J. 2017;20:16-20.

Rumfield CS, Pellom ST, Morillon YM, Schlom J, Jochems C. Immunomodulation to enhance the efficacy of an HPV therapeutic vaccine. J ImmunoTher Cancer. 2020;8:e000612. DOI:10.1136/ jitc-2020-000612

Meršaková S, Holubeková V, Grendár M, Višňovský J, Nachajová M, Kalman M, et al. Methylation of CADM1 and MAL together with HPV status in cytological cervical specimens serves an important role in the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. 2018;16:7166-7174.