Narrative Literature Review on Risk Factors Involved in Lung Cancers, Breast Cancers, Brain Cancers, Gastrointestinal Cancers, Gynecologic Cancers, and Urogenital Cancers
Journal of Cancer and Tumor International,
In this study, we described the most critical risk factors for different malignancies including breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal carcinoma among others, with an emphasis on modifiable risk factors. We revised the literature review about risk factors involved in the genesis of cancer in various databases, including articles indexed in PUBMED, SCOPUS, PMC, and Google Scholar. Awareness of risk factors enables conscious decisions to be made in an effort to combat malignancies. Knowing risk factors is a mode of fighting malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, practises, and laboratory/clinical interventions were among risk factors of diverse malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, laboratory/clinical interventions all contribute to the genesis and prognosis in a variety of malignancies. We concluded that abstaining from risk factors can prevent the development of many malignancies in a century where this conundrum is raising disproportionately. By informing the public about modifiable risk factors cancer mortality rates can be reduced. It is treated here is to make the public aware of the modifiable risks of cancers.
How to Cite
Abdel-Rahman O. Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Relationship to Family History of Prostate Cancer; Findings from the PLCO Trial. Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2019;17(4):e837–e844.
Choi JB, Myong JP, Lee Y, Kim I, Kim JH, Hong SH, Ha US. Does increased body mass index lead to elevated prostate cancer risk? It depends on waist circumference. BMC cancer. 2020;20(1):589.
Available: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020- 07089-5
Dong Y, Zhou J, Zhu Y, Luo L, He T, Hu H, et al. Abdominal obesity and colorectal cancer risk: systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Bioscience reports. 2017;37(6): BSR20170945.
Hosseini M, Naghan PA, Jafari AM, Yousefifard M, Taslimi S, Khodadad K, et al. Nutrition and lung cancer: a case control study in Iran. BMC cancer. 2014;14:860.
Jasperson KW, Tuohy TM, Neklason DW, Burt RW. Hereditary and familial colon cancer. Gastroenterology. 2010;138(6):2044–2058.
Leitzmann MF, Rohrmann S. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates. Clinical epidemiology. 2012;4:1–11.
Li J, Li WX, Bai C, Song Y. Particulate matter-induced epigenetic changes and lung cancer. The clinical respiratory Journal. 2017;11(5):539–546.
Perdana NR, Mochtar CA, Umbas R, Hamid AR. The Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer and Its Prevention: A Literature Review. Acta medica Indonesiana. 2016;48(3):228–238.2.
Vinceti M, Malagoli C, Fiorentini C, Longo C, Crespi CM, Albertini G, et al. Inverse association between dietary vitamin D and risk of cutaneous melanoma in a northern Italy population. Nutrition and cancer. 2011;63(4):506–513.
What Is Breast Cancer? [Internet] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [cited 2020Dec28]; 2020.
Yang K, Fung TT, Nan H. An Epidemiological Review of Diet and Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention: a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2018;27(10):1115–1122.
Warner WA, Lee TY, Badal K. et al. Cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends in Trinidad and Tobago. BMC Cancer. 2018;18:712.
Sigel K, Makinson A, Thaler J. Lung cancer in persons with HIV. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS. 2017;12(1):31–38.
Kovaleva OV, Romashin D, Zborovskaya IB, Davydov MM, Shogenov MS, Gratchev A. Human Lung Microbiome on the Way to Cancer. Journal of immunology research, 2019; 1394191.
Sung JH, Sim CS, Ock M, Oh I, Jeong KS, Yoo C. Comparison of a 10-Year Cumulative Age-Standardized Incidence Rate of Lung Cancer among Metropolitan Cities in Korea (During the 2000⁻2009 Period): Review of Occupational and Environmental Hazards Associated with Lung Cancer. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018;15(6):1259.
Sun YS, Zhao Z, Yang ZN, Xu F, Lu HJ, Zhu ZY, et al. Risk Factors and Preventions of Breast Cancer. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2017;13(11):1387–1397. Available:https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.21635
Kamińska M, Ciszewski T, Łopacka-Szatan K, Miotła P, Starosławska E. Breast cancer risk factors. Przeglad menopauzalny = Menopause review. 2015;14(3):196–202. Available:https://doi.org/10.5114/pm.2015.54346
Nazari SS, Mukherjee P. An overview of mammographic density and its association with breast cancer. Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan). 2018;25(3):259–267. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12282-018-0857-5
Ostrom QT, Bauchet L, Davis FG, Deltour I, Fisher JL, Langer CE, et al. The epidemiology of glioma in adults: a "state of the science" review. Neuro-oncology. 2014;16(7): 896–913. Available:https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nou087
Yang M, Guo W, Yang C, Tang J, Huang Q, Feng S., et al. Mobile phone use and glioma risk: A systematic review and meta- analysis. PloS one. 2017;12(5): e0175136. Available:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175136
Linet MS, Slovis TL, Miller DL, Kleinerman R, Lee C, Rajaraman P, Berrington de Gonzalez, A. Cancer risks associated with external radiation from diagnostic imaging procedures. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2012;62(2): 75–100.
McLaughlin JK, Malker HS, Blot WJ, Malker BK, Stone BJ, Weiner JA, et al. Occupational risks for intracranial gliomas in Sweden. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1987;78(2):253–257.
Pukkala E, Martinsen JI, Lynge E, Gunnarsdottir HK, Sparén P, Tryggvadottir L, et al. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15million people in five Nordic countries. Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). 2019;48(5):646–790. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/02841860902913546
Vienne-Jumeau A, Tafani C, Ricard D. Environmental risk factors of primary brain tumors: A review. Revue neurologique, . 2019;175(10):664–678. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurol.2019.08.004
Miller B, Peeri NC, Nabors LB, Creed J. H, Thompson ZJ, Rozmeski et al. (2018). Handedness and the risk of glioma. Journal of neuro-oncology. 2018;137(3): 639–644.
Campian J, Gutmann DH. CNS Tumors in Neurofibromatosis. Journal of clinical oncology: official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2017;35(21):2378–2385. Available:https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.71.7199
Den Hoed CM, Kuipers EJ. Gastric Cancer: How Can We Reduce the Incidence of this Disease?. Current gastroenterology reports. 2016;18(7):34. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11894-016-0506-0
Poorolajal J, Moradi L, Mohammadi Y, Cheraghi Z, Gohari-Ensaf F. Risk factors for stomach cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology and health. 2020;42:e2020004. Available:https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020004
González CA, Pera G, Agudo A, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Ceroti M, Boeing H, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of stomach and oesophagus adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST). International Journal of cancer. 2006;118(10):2559–2566.
Yusefi AR, Bagheri Lankarani K, Bastani, P, Radinmanesh M, Kavosi Z. Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2018;19(3):591–603. Available:https://doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.3.591
Song M, Camargo MC, Weinstein SJ, Best AF, Männistö S, Albanes D, Rabkin CS. Family history of cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of gastric cancer and its precursors in a Western population. Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. 2018;21(5):729–737. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10120-018-0807-0
Dong H, Jin X, Hu J, Li, H, He X, Liu X, Bao G. High γ-radiation sensitivity is associated with increased gastric cancer risk in a Chinese Han population: a case-control analysis. PloS one. 2012;7(8): e43625. Available:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043625
Stidham RW, Higgins P. Colorectal Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery. 2018;31(3):168–178. Available:https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1602237
Mármol I, Sánchez-de-Diego C, Pradilla Dieste A, Cerrada E, Rodriguez Yoldi, MJ. Colorectal Carcinoma: A General Overview and Future Perspectives in Colorectal Cancer. International journal of molecular sciences. 2017;18(1):197. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010197
Mughini-Gras L, Schaapveld M, Kramers J, Mooij S, Neefjes-Borst EA, Pelt WV, Neefjes J. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection. PloS one. 2018;13(1):e0189721.
Bernstein AM, Song M, Zhang X, Pan A, Wang M, et al. (2015). Processed and Unprocessed Red Meat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: Analysis by Tumor Location and Modification by Time. PloS one. 2015;10(8):e0135959. Available:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135959
Park SY, Wilkens LR, Setiawan VW, Monroe KR, Haiman CA, Le Marchand, L. Alcohol Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. American Journal of epidemiology. 2019;188(1):67–76.
Meeker S, Seamons A, Maggio-Price L, Paik J. Protective links between vitamin D, inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. World Journal of gastroenterology. 2016;22(3):933–948. Available:https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v22.i3.933
Frezza EE, Wachtel MS, Chiriva-Internati M. Influence of obesity on the risk of developing colon cancer. Gut. 206;55(2): 285–291. Available:https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2005.073163
Sia D, Villanueva A, Friedman SL, Llovet JM. Liver Cancer Cell of Origin, Molecular Class, and Effects on Patient Prognosis. Gastroenterology. 2017;152(4): 745–761. Available:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.11.048
Baecker A, Liu X, La Vecchia C, Zhang Z F. Worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma cases attributable to major risk factors. European Journal of Cancer Prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP). 2018;27(3):205–212. Available:https://doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000428
Massarweh NN, El-Serag HB. Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Intrahepatic Cholangioc- arcinoma. Cancer control: journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center. 2017;24(3):1073274817729245. Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/1073274817729245
Petruzziello A. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The Open Virology Journal. 2018;12:26–32. Available:https://doi.org/10.2174/1874357901812010026
Yang J, Hainaut P, Gores GJ, Amadou A, Plymoth A, Roberts LR. A global view of hepatocellular carcinoma: trends, risk, prevention and management. nature reviews gastroenterology & hepatology. 2019;598-604.
Funston G, O'Flynn H, Ryan N, Hamilton W, Crosbie EJ. Recognizing Gynecological Cancer in Primary Care: Risk Factors, Red Flags, and Referrals. Advances in therapy. 2018;35(4):577–589. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12325-018-0683-3
Kuchenbaecker KB, McGuffog L, Barrowdale D, Lee A, Soucy P, Dennis J, et al. Evaluation of Polygenic Risk Scores for Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2017;109(7):djw302.
Braun MM, Overbeek-Wager EA, Grumbo RJ. Diagnosis and Management of Endometrial Cancer. American family physician. 2016;93(6):468–474.
Njoku K, Abiola J, Russell J, Crosbie EJ. Endometrial cancer prevention in high-risk women. Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology. 2020;65:66–78. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2019.12.005
Lee MY, Shen MR. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cervical carcinoma. American Journal of Translational Research. 2012;4(1):1–13.
AlAshqar A, Patzkowsky K, Afrin S, Wild R, Taylor HS, Borahay MA. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Benign Gynecologic Disorders. Obstetrical & gynecological survey. 2019;74(11):661–673. Available:https://doi.org/10.1097/OGX.0000000000000718
Lynch HT, Casey MJ, Shaw TG, Lynch J F. Hereditary Factors in Gynecologic Cancer. The oncologist. 1998;3(5):319–338.
Rebbeck TR. Prostate Cancer Disparities by Race and Ethnicity: From Nucleotide to Neighborhood. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. 2018;8(9): a030387. Available:https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a030387
Abstract View: 245 times
PDF Download: 116 times