Journal of Cancer and Tumor International 2021-05-15T18:00:30+00:00 Journal of Cancer and Tumor International Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Cancer and Tumor International (ISSN: 2454-7360)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JCTI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Cancer and&nbsp;Tumor research’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Analysis of Full Blood Count and Bone Marrow Aspirations at Presentation in Children Diagnosed with Acute Leukaemias – A Single Centre Experience in Southern Nigeria 2021-05-15T18:00:30+00:00 G. K. Eke K. I. Korubo <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Acute leukaemias are the most common malignant neoplasms in childhood, presenting with a variety of nonspecific symptoms. Though many of the recent more sophisticated methods of diagnosis have important prognostic implications, they are often not available in low- and middle-income countries.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To review the full blood count and bone marrow aspirations at presentation in children diagnosed with acute leukaemias at a teaching hospital in southern Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A retrospective survey of children with acute leukaemias admitted into the Paediatric Oncology unit of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), from January 2014 to December 2020. Their clinical profile, full blood count and bone marrow aspirations were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Forty-three children aged 8 months to 17 years, with a median age of 9 years, were diagnosed with acute leukaemia within the period under review, 28 (65.1%) were males and 15 (34.9%) females, giving a M:F ratio of 1.9:1. Commonest clinical features at presentation were fever (n=28, 65.1%), pallor (n=18, 41.9%) and gum bleeding (n=16, 37.2%); while 38 (88.4%) of them presented with anaemia, 20 (46.5%) had leukocytosis and 36 (83.7%) had thrombocytopoenia with a median platelet count of 42x10<sup>9</sup>/L and circulating blasts were present in the peripheral blood film of most of the patients. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was the diagnosis in 30 (70%) children, and AML in 9 (21%). The bone marrow was hypercellular in 30 cases (69.8%) and erythropoiesis was depressed in 39 (90.7%) children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> At the UPTH, children with acute leukaemias were mostly males. Fever, pallor and gum bleeding were the commonest symptoms with most of them having circulating blasts. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was the commonest type and bone marrow was mainly hypercellular with depressed erythropoiesis.</p> 2021-04-12T09:44:44+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparison of Rare Types of Breast Cancer 2021-05-15T18:00:30+00:00 Osman Erdogan Alper Parlakgumus Ugur Topal Kemal Yener Umit Turan Oktay Irkorucu <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Mucinous, medullary, and papillary carcinomas are rarely encountered types of breast cancer. This study aims to contribute to the literature by comparing the clinical and prognostic features and treatment alternatives of rare breast carcinomas.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Thirty-four patients with rare breast cancer out of a total of 1368 patients who underwent surgery for breast cancer in our clinic between January 2011 and December 2020 were included in the study.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The patients were assigned into three groups, i.e., medullary carcinoma group (Group 1), mucinous carcinoma group (Group 2) and papillary carcinoma group (Group 3). Demographic and clinical features, treatment modalities used, surgical approaches, pathological features of tumors and survival were compared between the groups.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Thirty-four patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients in Group 3 was higher, though it was not statistically significant. Modified radical mastectomy was more frequently performed in all the groups. The number of the lymph nodes removed through axillary dissections and the number of the positive lymph nodes were similar in all the groups. The tumors in all the groups were also of comparable sizes (30 mm in Group 1, 42.5 mm in Group 2 and 30 mm in Group 3; p:0.464). Estrogen receptors were negative in a significantly higher rate of Group 1(66.7% of Group 1, p&lt;0,001). A significantly higher rate of Group 1 received postoperative chemotherapy (93,3% of Group 1,p:0.001), but the rate of the patients receiving hormonotherapy in this group was significantly lower (26.7% of Group, p&lt;0,001). The patients with medullary cancer had significantly longer survival than those with mucinous cancer and those with papillary cancer (76.2 in Group 1, 54.5 in Group 2 and 58.4 in Group 3; p:0.005).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>While rare subtypes of breast carcinoma did not affect opting for surgical treatment, selection of oncological therapy was affected depending on the hormone receptor status of these tumors. The long-term survival differed between rare breast tumors. In view of the unique clinical pictures of the tumors, the patients should be evaluated individually, and the evaluation should be associated with theevidence-based principles available for more common breast carcinomas.</p> 2021-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Histomorphological Characteristics and Distribution of Prostatic Carcinoma Foci Using Multiple Site-Specific Labelled Core Biopsies in a tertiary Hospital in Southwestern Nigeria 2021-05-15T18:00:29+00:00 S. A. Omenai I. M. Mashor I. N. C. Chibuzo S. Adebayo O. B. Shittu J. O. Ogunbiyi <p><strong>Background and Objective: </strong>There are many evolving prostatic biopsy sampling techniques aimed at improving diagnostic accuracy, localization, prognostication and dictating prostate cancer treatment options. This study analysed the histomorphology, spatial distribution and prognostic implications of site-specific core biopsies of the prostate gland.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Double-sextant prostate biopsy cores, representing the medial and lateral aspects of the left and right apices, mid-gland and bases of the glands, were microscopically examined prospectively over an 18-month period. These were obtained by transrectal ultrasound guidance. H&amp;E stained slides were examined for the presence, volume, Gleason score and ISUP grade-group of cancer.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Ninety-one patients aged 48 to 88 years (median age 70 years) were seen. In 68.1% of cases all anatomical zones of an examined prostate gland (apices, mid-gland and bases) had cancer. Overall, the apical region of the prostate gland had cancer in 35.6% of cases, the mid-gland portion 33.8% of the time while the basal region was positive in 30.6% of the cases. Tumour was restricted to mid-gland in 5.5% of cases, the apex in 4.4%, whilst it was restricted to the base in 2.2% of the cases. At least a core from all sextant biopsy sites had cancer in 42.9% of cases. Carcinoma volume was least in basally located cancers. ISUP grade group 5 was most frequently seen and grade group 2 was the least seen.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Prostatic carcinomas in our region have poor prognostic indicators such as poor differentiation, high tumour volume, and in most cases involves biopsy cores from all anatomical zones of the prostate.</p> 2021-05-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cervical Cancer in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South, Nigeria: A 5-Year Review 2021-05-15T18:00:28+00:00 D. O. Allagoa L. Obagah P. C. Oriji E. S. Tekenah C. Njoku A. S. Afolabi C. Ikoro K. M. Mbah T. J. Wagio O. S. Ohaeri O. Izevbigie G. Atemie <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cervical cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in developing countries. The World Health Organisation estimated that there were about 570,000 new cases of cancer of the cervix in 2018 and about 311,000 women died of the disease.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the prevalence and characteristics of patients with cervical cancer at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This was a descriptive study which involved all the patients with histologically confirmed cervical cancer managed at the gynaecological unit of the hospital from 1st January, 2016 to 31st December, 2020. Information was extracted from the gynaecological records and entered into a predesigned proforma. All available data were retrospectively analysed with SPSS version 23.0, and results were presented in tables and frequencies.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 31 cases of cervical cancers out of the 2,478 gynaecological cases seen. The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.25%. About one-third of the women were in the sixth decade of life (32.3%). About half of the women were diagnosed at Stage 2 of the disease (51.6%) and squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 80.6% of the cancers. Radiotherapy was the most used treatment option (64.5%). About one-quarter died (25.8%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Most of the patients in this study presented in the advanced stages of the disease, with death of about one-quarter of them. Prevention and early presentation to the hospital are key in the prevention of poor quality of life and deaths. All hands must be on deck to tackle this disease.</p> 2021-05-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##