Journal of Cancer and Tumor International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Cancer and Tumor International (ISSN: 2454-7360)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JCTI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Cancer and&nbsp;Tumor research’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Cancer and Tumor International) (Journal of Cancer and Tumor International) Wed, 07 Jul 2021 10:35:05 +0000 OJS 60 Narrative Literature Review on Risk Factors Involved in Lung Cancers, Breast Cancers, Brain Cancers, Gastrointestinal Cancers, Gynecologic Cancers, and Urogenital Cancers <p>In this study, we described the most critical risk factors for different malignancies including breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal carcinoma among others, with an emphasis on modifiable risk factors. We revised the literature review about risk factors involved in the genesis of cancer in various databases, including articles indexed in PUBMED, SCOPUS, PMC, and Google Scholar. Awareness of risk factors enables conscious decisions to be made in an effort to combat malignancies. Knowing risk factors is a mode of fighting malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, practises, and laboratory/clinical interventions were among risk factors of diverse malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, laboratory/clinical interventions all contribute to the genesis and prognosis in a variety of malignancies. We concluded that abstaining from risk factors can prevent the development of many malignancies in a century where this conundrum is raising disproportionately. By informing the public about modifiable risk factors cancer mortality rates can be reduced. It is treated here is to make the public aware of the modifiable risks of cancers.</p> Angel Justiz Vaillant, Lyvan Gardiner, Maryam Mohammed, Matthew Surajbally, Luke Maharaj, Luke Ramsingh, Makeisha Simon, Mark Seegobin, Masud Niles, Sehlule Vuma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Patients Undergoing Splenectomy for Spleen Masses <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Spleen masses, which are discovered on imaging studies, usually create difficulty in diagnosis and treatment. Except for lymphomas involving the spleen, primary and secondary neoplasms are rare and discovered by chance. This study analyses a series of splenectomies in a surgical clinic to evaluate the management of incidentally diagnosed splenic masses.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This retrospective study included patients operated for spleen masses between 2010 and 2021. Patients with a history of lymphoproliferative disease and splenectomy performed as part of a larger resection were excluded.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The patients were divided into three groups, i.e. cystic, benign and malignant, based on the results of pathological examinations. The groups were compared in terms of age, gender, tumor size, and previous history of malignancy.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Splenectomy was performed in 512 patients in 11 years, 62 of whom had solid and cystic lesions detected on imaging. Thirty-five patients (56,5%) were female and the median age was 40 years (range: 18-80 years). Forty-four patients (71%) had distinct symptoms. Radiological evaluations of all the patients were made. Diagnostic biopsy could not be performed in any of the patients. The final pathological examination showed cysts in 38 patients (61,3%), benign lesions in nine patients (14,5%) and malignant lesions in 15 patients (24,2%). Out of 15 patients with malignant lesions, one patient had Hodgkin’s lymphoma, four patients had diffuse large B cell lymphoma and ten patients had metastatic tumors. There was a significant difference in age between the groups and the malignant group was older (p = 0.017). The size of the lesions also significantly differed and the malignant lesions had a significantly smaller diameter (p = 0.014). A significantly higher rate of the malignant group had a previous history of cancer (p˂0,001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Spleen neoplasms are masses that are difficult to diagnose. Most of them are asymptomatic and are found after splenectomies by coincidence. Splenectomy can be utilized as both a diagnostic and curative method. It should be kept in mind that the lesions detected in the spleen in patients with a history of malignancy can be metastatic.</p> Osman Erdogan, Alper Parlakgumus, Ugur Topal, Ugras Daban, Zeynel Abidin Tas, Oktay Irkorucu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 07 Jul 2021 10:35:52 +0000 Lenvatinib in Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) in a Tertiary Caner Hospital- a Single Institute Experience <p>Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) is an aggressive rare form of caner with limited treatment options and short survival. In view of initial case reports have shown some good clinical response with lenvatinib, we used the same in our institute. We are presenting a retrospective series of 4 cases between 2018-2021. It showed very promising results with 75% showing clinically meaningful regression of tumor. Hypertension is the most common side effect, which should be aggressively managed. We feel that, lenvatinib remains a safe and effective option to explore in patients with refractory anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.</p> Rakesh Sharma, P. S. Dattatreya, A. V. S. Suresh, Ch Mohana Vamsy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Medullary Thyroid Cancer: Case Series Reports and Literature Review <p><strong>Background:</strong> Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare neuro-endocrine tumor that arises from the C-cells of the thyroid. About 20- 25 % of MTC cases may be associated with hereditary syndromes like MEN 2A, MEN 2B and Familial MTC. The survival rate is related mainly to the age of the patient, stage of the disease and completion of the surgical resection.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Retrospective review of 11 patients who were diagnosed with medullary thyroid cancer in our general surgery department during the period from 2011 to 2021. All patients had preoperative assessment including history taking, clinical examination, tumor marker (calcitonin and CEA), thyroid function testing, ultrasonography and FNAC. All patients underwent genetic assessment to exclude any underlying genetic mutation.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean age of diagnosis was 57.73 ± 16.45 years of age. Three patients were males and eight were females. All patients had total thyroidectomy, central and lateral neck dissection except one patient who had prophylactic thyroidectomy due to familial inherited RET mutation. Two patients had recurrence; both of them had high-stage tumor (T3 and T4) with multiple cervical lymph nodes metastasis. The sensitivity of serum calcitonin for the detection of MTC was about 98%. Patients, who had localized disease and underwent complete surgical resection, had good overall survival rates compared with patients with advanced disease.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: MTC represent a heterogeneous group of thyroid cancers. The overall survival is better than that of undifferentiated thyroid cancers. Complete resection of the thyroid tumor and any local or regional metastases provides the only cure for patients with MTC. Further researches are still needed to improve our understanding and management of MTC.</p> Emad Rezkallah, Andrew Elsaify, Wael M. Elsaify ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-leukemogenic Efficacy of Aloe vera Gel on Benzene-induced Leukemia in Wistar Rats <p><strong>Backgroud:</strong> The toxicity of benzene leading to leukemia induction has been well documented in animal model. <em>Aloe vera</em> is a succulent perennial evergreen flowering plant used traditionally in the treatment of jaundice and was found to have potent cytotoxic effect against HL60 human acute myeloid leukemia. The present study investigated the <em>in vivo</em> chemoprotective effects of <em>Aloe vera</em> gel on benzene-induced leukemia in rats.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Leukemia was induced in male Wistar rats of 80-90g weight by intravenously administered 0.2ml benzene solution alternate days for four weeks. Following induction, leukemic rats and normal baseline control rats were randomly assigned into four experimental groups of 6 animals each as follows: Group CTRL (control), normal baseline control rats; Group AVG (<em>Aloe</em> <em>vera</em> gel), normal baseline rats treated with A<em>loe vera</em> gel (150 mg/kg) for 7 days, Group LKR (leukemic rats), untreated leukemic rats serving as leukemia control and Group LKR + AVG, leukemic rats treated with <em>Aloe vera</em> gel (150 mg/kg) for 7 days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Leukemic rats showed altered hematology and morphological deformations such as anisocytosis, poikilocytosis and blast cells occurrence in peripheral blood. Also hypercellularity, severe dysplasia and significantly elevated micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte were observed in marrow of leukemic rats. Moreover, benzene caused a significant elevation in plasma level of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) with concomitant reduction in total sulfhydryl and arylesterase activity. However, treatment with <em>Aloe vera</em> gel restored blood hematology to near normal and mitigated the deformities in blood cell morphology induced by benzene. <em>Aloe vera</em> supplementation also effected a disappearance of dysplasia and diminution in the frequency of micronucleus in the bone marrow of treated leukemic rats. It also enhanced plasma antioxidant capability by restoring sulfhydryl content and arylesterase activity of the blood and abrogated the increase in plasma content of AOPPs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Overall, <em>Aloe vera</em> gel offered chemoprotective effect on Benzene-induced leukemia in rats.</p> Olaniyi Solomon Ola ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000