Journal of Cancer and Tumor International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Cancer and Tumor International (ISSN: 2454-7360)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JCTI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Cancer and&nbsp;Tumor research’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Cancer and Tumor International) (Journal of Cancer and Tumor International) Thu, 28 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 A Case Report of Management of Multiple Peri-orbital Cysts (Eccrine Hidrocystoma) in a 35-Year Old Woman <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hidrocystoma is a rare benign swelling(tumour) of sweat glands also known as the cystic form of hidroadenoma, cystadenomas, sudoriferous cysts, and Moll’s gland. It has no racial or sex predilection. Its rarity and site of occurrence makes its management challenging due to limitation in knowledge of making diagnosis, treatment, availability of drugs and interventions and aesthetic concerns.</p> <p><strong>Presentation of Case: </strong>A 35 year old Nigerian woman from the Igbo ethnic group with tertiary level of education who presented to the dermatology outpatient clinic with a 10 year history of recurrent peri-orbital swelling associated with occasional pruritus. There was no history of similar lesion in any family member. Patient had resorted to self-medication and consulted different doctors prior to being referred to the dermatologist. Her physical examination was normal. She was also counselled about the disease and management options. She subsequently received seven sessions of the chemo-ablation using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) with remarkable improvement and has had no recurrence of lesions for the past 1 year.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hidrocystomas can be successfully treated in our environment.</p> E. S. Amadi, M. N. Amaewhule, C. Okejim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Rare Breast Carcinosarcoma in a Young Female <p>Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) is a rare aggressive type of breast cancer, as this form of cancer makes up only 1% of overall breast cancers. It mainly presents with a rapid-growing mass.&nbsp; Establishing the diagnosis is based on histopathology, as imaging studies show the same features as other types of breast cancer. The treatment protocol for MBC is similar to those for invasive ductal carcinomas owing to the lack of standardized management modality for metaplastic breast cancer per se.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mohammad Al-Share, Michleen Al-Awabdeh, Maysaa Al-Khalaileh, Mohammad Abu-Jeyyab, Hanan Al-Asbahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Rare Case Report of Radionecrosis Mandible after Irradiation for Breast Cancer <p>Management of irradiated patients with cancer in the head and neck region is a challenging scenario. Radiotherapy promotes cellular and vascular insufficiency that results in a low response rate in the healing. Consequently, surgical procedures in irradiated tissues present high rates of complication. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is the most severe sequelae caused by radiotherapy. ORN can occur due to multiple reasons, of which periodontal disease, traumatic injury induced by ill-fitting dentures and trauma after surgery or tooth extraction are the most common. The management of this side effect is difficult and can result in bone or soft tissue loss, affecting the quality of life since majority of patients with ORN have various comorbidities associated. In this article we present a case report of osteoradionecrosis secondary to irradiation for breast cancer which is not frequently reported in literature.</p> Akhilesh Prathap, George Varghese, R. S. Nidhin, Geethu Philo Varghese, R. B. Aiswarya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Hormone Positive HER2 Negative Breast Cancer Metastatic to the Rectum: A Case Report <p><strong>Background:</strong> The rectum is an uncommon site for metastases from Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) of the breast, and it poses risks such as perforation and obstruction.</p> <p><strong>Case Report:</strong> A 50-year-old non-diabetic, non-alcoholic, and nonsmoker premenopausal female patient diagnosed with rectal metastasis primarily originating from breast cancer.</p> <p>In 2009, the patient was diagnosed with stage IV hormone positive, Her-2 (+2) negative, FISH positive right breast cancer with cervical (C6) vertebrae metastasis seen on PET scan. As she had oligo metastasis with a single bony focus, she was treated with intent to cure. For this purpose, she received radiation therapy to the cervical vertebrae, resulting in a complete response. This was followed by pseudo-neoadjuvant chemotherapy with six cycles of Docetaxel and trastuzumab. The patient then underwent a right-modified radical mastectomy. The pathology showed no complete response with residual 2.5 cm invasive carcinoma (PT2), and 4 out of 25 Axillary lymph nodes were positive for metastases (PN2). She was given (pseudo) adjuvant radiotherapy to the chest wall and lymphatics and was started on (pseudo) adjuvant tamoxifen. Trastuzumab was completed for one year as a (pseudo) adjuvant setting.</p> <p>Her disease seemed to be cleared up as no new cancer signs were reported by follow-up full body scans (CT/PET). After seven years, in May 2016, her PET-CT scan showed multiple new hypermetabolic osseous lesions, in keeping with metastasis involving the right shoulder, mid-thoracic spine, left aspect of L5, right sacrum, and the greater trochanteric region of the left femur and left ischium. She also presented a new hypermetabolic retroperitoneal paracaval lymph node, in keeping with metastasis. The new ill-defined hypodensity in the left hepatic lobe was associated with increased FDG uptake, which is suspicious for early metastasis. She also presented a tiny right lung peri-fissural nodularity that was too small to be characterized by PET.</p> <p>She was treated with Zoladex 3.6 mg injection monthly, Femara 2.5 mg daily, Palbociclib 125 mg PO daily for 21 days over a 28-day cycle, and Denosumab 120 mg monthly. The treatment was initiated in Singapore. As previously stated, Her-2 testing was reported as negative. The patient went into complete remission for more than six years, as documented by the PET scan conducted on January 19, 2022. Later, in June 2022, the patient developed signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction (abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting) and was diagnosed with rectal cancer metastases of breast origin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; As the patient first developed breast cancer with oligo-bony metastasis, which was successfully treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but later relapsed in the lung, liver, lymph nodes, and multiple bony sites. She was treated successfully via hormonal and targeted therapy. Finally, she relapsed in the form of rectal metastasis.</p> Aref Chehal, Ashraf Alakkad, Ashok Uttamchandani, Rawia Mohamed, Robert Douglas Church, Sonia Otsmane ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Endoscopic Assisted Supraorbital Approach for Tumors of Anterior and Middle Skull Base <p><strong>Background Data:</strong> The supraorbital eyebrow approach is a minimally invasive keyhole technique that offers wide access to the anterior skull base and parasellar region using the subfrontal corridor, with assistances of neuroendoscopy The approach through the eyebrow permits access to a number of lesions in the subfrontal corridor with minimal brain retraction and a much smaller area of potential injury of main structures.</p> <p><strong>Study Design</strong><strong>:</strong> This study is a follow up study.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the role of supraorbital endoscopic approach for tumors of anterior and middle skull base.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods: </strong>All the operations were performed at Suez Canal University hospitals, in about 24 months, the first 30 patients having tumors of anterior and middle skull base fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in this prospective study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Endoscopy can play an important role in improving visualization through the keyhole corridor. With the use of neuroendoscopy, the reach of this approach may be extended even further to include the pituitary fossa, the top third of the clivus, the interpeduncular cistern, the anterior third ventricle, and the medial and anterior temporal lobe and middle fossa.The major advantage of the supraorbital over the endonasal route is a simplified skull base closure and reduced risk of postoperative CSF leak. It is a valuable approach for selected patients. Neuromonitoring may further increase surgical safety.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The approach through the eyebrow permits access to a number of lesions in the subfrontal corridor With the use of the assisstence of neuroendoscopy, with minimal brain retraction and a much smaller area of potential injury of anatomical structures.</p> Mohamed E. Shamia, Ahmed M. Abdelmonem, Tariq Awad, Nader E. Negm, Medhat M. Kamal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Sudanese Patients of Prostate Cancer in Khartoum State <p><strong>Background: </strong>Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed solid tumor among men. Genetic susceptibility had been proposed among the risk factors for the development of this cancer.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To investigate the effect of androgen receptor gene polymorphism in the susceptibility of prostate cancer among Sudanese patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study was conducted in Khartoum State during the period from December 2021 to May 2022. The study population that was selected consisted of one hundred patients, who had prostate cancer, who attended for routine follow-up assessment following their chemotherapy treatment. A total of 5 ml EDTA anti-coagulated venous blood samples were obtained from all participants. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was measured by competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. DNA extraction was performed for all samples by chemical method and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP method using <em>Eco147I </em>enzyme.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The Androgen receptor genotype showed that wild (G/G) type was more frequent (89%) than heterozygous (G/A) type (11%), and allele G was more frequent (94.5%)&nbsp; than allele A (5.5%). The mean serum PSA level among prostate cancer patients was 18.71<u>+</u>31.68 ng/ml. Comparison of the mean serum PSA levels between different AR genotypes revealed no significant association between the genotype and the hormonal level (<em>p</em>. values &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Androgen receptor gene polymorphism was detected in this study population as heterozygous type. Moreover; there was no significant association between AR genotype and serum PSA level.</p> Jumaa Abuajila Salem Salama, Dawelbiet Abdelaal Yahia, Mohamed Maysara Ali, Ahmed Elhadi Elsadig, Tarig A. M. Hamid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Thymoquinone and Cisplatin on C-MYC, KRAS, p53 and EGFR Gene Expression in Lung Cancer Cell Lines <p>Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of death.It is known that&nbsp; genetic reasons in its etiology.Lung cancer has been shown to be associated with the EGFR,P53,KRAS and c-MYC genes.Thymoquinone is an antitumoral and antineoplastic bioactive substance procured from Nigella sativa plant.Cisplatin is a frequently used chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of lung cancer.Our study has been conducted to examine the effects of Tq and Cis on gene expressions on lung cancer cell lines.Potential effects of Tq and Cis on A549,HTB54, CRL5820 and BEAS2B cell lines and cell viability using MTT has been evaluated.Cell culture has been effectuated with RPMI supplemented with 10% FBS,1% antibiotic and DMEM(37°C, %5 CO<sub>2</sub>).Cells were cultured for 24 h in 96 well plates(2500/ml cells) 10% FBS RPMI appropriate medium.The cells have been exposured 100 μM Tq and 200 μM Cis for 4h under incubation conditions.DMSO has been used for negative control.RT PCR has been conducted using SYBR Green qPCR Master Mix(reference gene GAPDH).As a result, p53 gene suppression has been shown in lung adenocarcinoma with Tq and Cis and epidermoid carcinoma with Cis only.EGFR gene suppression has been shown in lung adenocarsinoma with Tq only and epidermoid carcinoma with Cis only.C-MYC gene suppression has been shown in lung adenocarsinoma with both substances(more at Tq).It has been shown that KRAS gene suppression does not occur in any cell line.In addition, it has been shown that no gene expression is suppressed after Tq and cis exposure in the mesothelioma cell line.</p> Bayrakçi Onur, Karaman Taşdemir Demet, Ilhan Sedat, Işik Ahmet Ferudun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 14 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Covid-19 Pandemic on Safe and Timely Delivery of Systemic Anti-Cancer Therapy, Dubai Hospital Experience <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To analyze the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on timely delivery of systemic anti-cancer treatment including chemotherapy, biological therapy and immunotherapy and assess complication rate.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Department of Oncology, Dubai Hospital, Dubai, UAE from January 2020 to July 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This is a retrospective review of electronic medical records and infusion Centre log of the number of chemotherapy sessions administered in the infusion therapy Centre, Dubai hospital from January 2020 to July 2020. Data on treatment delays, interruptions or discontinuations, and adverse events such as febrile neutropenia were collected and analysed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 1553 systemic treatment sessions were recorded between January 2020 to July 2020 with an average of 222 treatment sessions per month. Physician recorded delays were observed in ninety (5.79%) treatment sessions. The average treatment delay was 7 (2-13) days. Delays were frequently caused by the overall treatment course and disease-related factors (toxicities, disease progression). The highest number of treatment delays (n=23,10.2%) were recorded in April, at the peak of the Covid-19 pandemic, most likely because of the implementation of extreme precautionary measures. There were no interruptions or discontinuations in treatment.</p> <p>Fourteen (&lt;1%) patients developed febrile neutropenia. With treatment, all of them recovered fully. No significant change in systemic treatment related complications were observed during the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study found no evidence of an appreciable rise in the number of complications or delays in systemic anticancer treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. This experience indicates that systemic chemotherapy may be delivered successfully during a pandemic with infection control and safety precautions. However, more research with a larger sample size is needed for more accurate advice in this case.</p> Muhammad Farooq Latif, Syed Hammad Tirmazy, Dalia Mahmoud El-Shourbagy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 24 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnostic Challenges in Osteoradionecrosis of the Jaw <p>Osteoradionecrosis of the jaws (ORNJ) is a severe radiotherapy (RT) complication that occurs in 2% to 22% of individuals with head and neck cancers (HNC) who are treated with RT or concurrent chemo-RT. The accurate diagnosis of ORNJ is crucial for appropriate and prompt management. On the other hand, various ORNJ stages can resemble osteomyelitis, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), and tumor recurrences. This challenging situation is primarily due to the clinical and radiologic similarities between ORNJ and these non-RT-related conditions. Image analysis techniques such as panoramic imaging (PI), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bone scintigraphy, positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission CT (SPECT) might help to avoid diagnostic obstacles. Despite the fact that the general characteristics of ORNJ have been reported in the literature, there is no clear consensus on its definitive diagnosis. Therefore, the current review aims to address ORNJ and its clinical and radiological aspects, as well as provide evidence to inform on the approaches to be used in removing the complexity in diagnosis, with a specific focus on radiological and nuclear medicine techniques.</p> Busra Yilmaz, Efsun Somay, Ahmet Kucuk, Erkan Topkan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Histopathological Characteristics of Breast Lesions in a Tertiary Health Institution in Southwest Nigeria: A 9-year Review <p><strong>Background: </strong>The breast is affected by several diseases, including developmental, inflammatory, and neoplastic. While benign breast neoplasms are usually more common, breast cancer is the most common nonskin cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women after lung cancer in the world.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The review aimed to assess the histopathological diagnosis of breast lesions over a period of 9years</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a retrospective review of eight hundred and fourteen histopathologic cases of breast lesions accessed through laboratory records of all breast lesions cases seen. The demographic data were obtained and the patient’s histology slides were reviewed. The tumors were classified according to the WHO International Classification of breast tumors and Malignant breast tumors were graded according to the Nottingham grading system. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The majority of breast cancer cases were seen in patients below 40 years, malignant cases were predominant in older age groups (40 – 59 years; 57.4%, 60 years and above; 23.3%) and malignancy was significantly associated with age group, p-value &lt; 0.05. The prevailing neoplasm was Benign type (68.3%) while malignant neoplasm accounted for 30.2% and invasive ductal carcinoma (89.1%) was most prevalent. Moreso, the majority were in grade 2; 152 (76.8%) using the Nottigham grading system. However, the commonest benign neoplasm was fibroadenoma (53.7%) followed by fibrocystic change (20.1%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; Breast lesions are common in this environment.&nbsp; Benign breast neoplasms are more commoner than malignant diseases.&nbsp; One in three of every sub-Saharan woman diagnosed with malignant breast lesion may not survive five years post-diagnosis. The prognosis of breast malignancies in sub-Saharan is poor due to late Presentation, ignorance, and poverty.</p> Olabisi Ayo-Aderibigbe, Taiwo Oloyede, Adebayo Adekunle, Oluwole Odujoko, Taiwo Babatunde, Samson Ojedokun, Afolabi Salawu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 20 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000