Open Access Original Research Article

Histo-Epidemiology of Kidney Cancer in Cameroon: About 110 Cases

Jean Paul Ndamba Engbang, Beyeme Sala, Celestin Fonkwa, Yoan Ligan, Bruno Djougmo Djimeli, Godefroy Simo, André Moune, Amadou Fewou, Jean Louis Oyono Essame, Alan Hasigov, Aleksandre Ephiev

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/30063

Objectives: To describe the epidemiological and histopathological aspects of kidney cancer in Cameroon.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study on malignant tumors of the kidney examined in the anatomical pathology laboratories of five regions (Center, Littoral, West, South-west and North-west), over a period of 12 years (2004-2015). The studied parameters were: frequency, age, sex, histological type.

Results: A total of 110 cases of kidney cancer were collected, representing 8.55% of malignant urogenital tumors. The mean age of patients was 28.72±24.79 years (extremes: 4 months - 76 years). Females are relatively more affected than males (56 cases, 50.91%), with female-to-male ratio of 1.04:1. A total of 58 (52.73%) cases of renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 46 (41.82%) cases of nephroblastomas (NB) and 3 (2.73%) of soft tissue tumors were identified.

Conclusion: Kidney cancer is the third urogenital cancer in Cameroon characterized by a relative female predominance with renal cell carcinoma as the predominant histological type.


Open Access Original Research Article

Immunohistochemical Pattern of Breast Cancer in Maiduguri, Borno State

B. A. Imam, O. O. Okechi, K. Abdullahi, U. Abubakar, A. B. Musa, N. Okorie, S. Umar, A. O. Muhammed, O. M. Mohammed, A. Zakariya, K. K. Ibrahim, A. Umar

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/31831

Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer affecting women in Nigeria, with a very high morbidity and mortality rate if the diagnosis is delayed. It is common among women in both developed and developing countries of the world.

Objectives: This is carried out to determine the immunohistochemical and histopathological patterns of breast cancer in Maiduguri.

Methodology: One hundred and fifty two cases of female breast cancer were retrieved from the archive of Department of Histopathology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. ER, PR and HER2 expression was assessed using immunohistochemical staining.

Results: Thirty one of the 152 cases were positive for either one or two of the hormonal antigen,while 121 (79.6%) were completely negative for any of the hormonal antigen, of the 31 positive cases, oestrogenreceptors were detected in 14 (45.2%) cases, progesterone were detected in 10 (32.2%) of the cancer cases while HER 2 were detected in 7 (22.6%). The mean age of all the subjects with breast cancer is 47.6% with highest prevalence at the age range of 32 – 58.Invasive ductal carcinoma account for 88.2% of the total breast cancer followed by invasive lobular carcinoma with 4.0%.

Conclusion: From this study most cases of breast cancer in this environment are hormone receptor negative as found in most part of African continent in contrast to higher number of hormone receptor positive cases in most western and Arabian countries.


Open Access Original Research Article

Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor: A Novel Modulator of Inflammation in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma through Regulation of NF-ΚB Activity

Ankit V. Gandhi, Galina `Chipitsyna, Daniel Relles, Charles J. Yeo, Hwyda A. Arafat

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/31326

Aims: The aim of this study was to explore potential pro-inflammatory, pro-migratory and pro-invasive roles of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells.

Study Design: AT2R-specific agonist (CGP42112A, CGP), blocking antibody, or siRNA were interchangeably used to analyze functional impact of AT2R on PDAC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.

Results: This study revealed that AT2R blockade reduced proliferation, migration and invasion of PDAC cells. Blocking AT2R significantly lowed the expression of oxidative-stress genes Nox1, Nox3, Nox4, and Nox5, and pro-invasive genes MMP-2, MMP-9, OPN, and α5-integrin. AT2R siRNA significantly downregulated the expression levels of pro-inflammatory IL-1beta, IFN-γ, iNOS, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-15 mRNA. Blocking AT2R also inhibited the intrinsic and angiotensin II (AngII) or CGP-mediated activation of NF-κB.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrate previously unknown pro-inflammatory, pro-migratory and pro-invasive effects of AT2R in PDAC cells. Our data suggest that one mechanism by which AT2R promote inflammation is through activation of constitutive and AngII-mediated NF-κB. Thus, AT2R blockade could be a novel therapeutic strategy to target multiple pathways that mediate PDAC carcinogenesis.                                                                                                                                                               


Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Contributing to Delayed Breast Cancer Presentation: A Prospective Study at Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals, Harare, Zimbabwe 2010-2013

D. Muchuweti, G. Nyandoro, E. G. Muguti, T. Muchaziwepi

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/29757

Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common female cancers in Zimbabwe. A considerable proportion of patients delay presentation, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Delay in presentation can either be provider or patient delay. Survival is related to the stage at presentation. Delayed presentation is associated with lower survival. Understanding the reasons for delay may help in reducing delays and morbidity and mortality. This study addresses these concerns.

Aim: To determine factors contributing to delayed breast cancer presentation at Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals.

Methods: A prospective observational study of patients with the clinical and histological diagnosis of breast cancer attending Surgical Outpatient clinics awaiting surgery, or operated on from January 2010 to December 2013 were included. Patients were interviewed and specific questions relating to breast cancer risk and delay factors were recorded. Relevant investigations, including Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) testing, were done and recorded. Final histology results were collected from Histopathology Department, analyzed and recorded. In addition to chi-square test for associated factors of delay and proportionate z test for percentage differences, the researchers validated the observed factors using discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis was used to model the reasons and delay period with a cut-off point 3 months (< 3 months / ≥ 3 months).

Results: Seventy three patients were enrolled in the study. Forty nine (62.1%) were of rural domicile. Time to breast cancer presentation ranged from 1 to 52 months. The most common reason for delay (66%) was ignorance and secondly (18%) poverty. Fifty three (72.6%) patients were unemployed (p<0.05). Primary school was the highest level of education in 23 patients (31.5%), with 38 (52.1%) having attained secondary level education. Fifty-seven (78.1%) patients presented with a mass (p<0.05%) with pain occurring in 29 (39.7%) of patients. Fifty four patients (74%) had no knowledge of breast self-examination (BSE) and 37 (51%) of these patients were of rural domicile (p<0.05). Of the 37 rural patients with no knowledge of BSE 35 (94.5%), had primary level education (p<0.005). Fifty one (69.9%) patients consented to HIV testing, 7 (13.7%) were HIV positive. A low level of education, ignorance of breast cancer, poor socio-economic status, rural residence and lack of knowledge of BSE were important predictors of breast cancer delay to presentation. Old age, HIV status, level of education and family history were major reasons associated with breast cancer presentation delay.

Conclusion: The overwhelming majority of breast cancer patients attending Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals presented with advanced disease. These patients were mostly of low socio-economic status. Current health education campaigns seem to be ineffective in improving breast cancer awareness. Strategies to reduce delays in presentation, through various interventions focused on education and poverty alleviation need to be formulated.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study between Anthracycline Based Regimen and Taxane Based Regimen in Metastatic Gastric Cancer

Abeer Ibrahim, Mohamed A. Salem, Ahmed Hefny

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/32058

Introduction: Taxanes and anthracyclin containing regimes are the most successful regimens in advanced gastric cancer with comparable results but with different toxicity profiles.

Objective: To compare efficacy and toxicity of 2 regimens one containing anthrathycline (ECSF regimen) and other contain taxane (PCF regimen) as a first line therapy in advanced gastric cancer.

Methods: Between May 2011 and Dec 2015, a total  of 120 patients with  locally advanced and metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma were included in the study, 60 patients received  ECSF (Epirubicin 50 mg/m2 iv  d1, Cisplatin 60 mg/m2 iv d1, 5-FU 1750 mg/m2/d “1 and 8” CIVI over 24 h, Folinic acid 200 mg /m2 day 1, 8 repeated every 3 weeks), while, another 60 patients received PCF (Paclitaxel 150 mg/m2 IV on day 1; Cisplatin 15 mg/m2 IV on days 1-5 and 5-FU 600mg/m2/day CIVI  d1-5 every 3 weeks) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicities.

Results: ORR of ECSF was superior to PCF arm, 47% vs. 34% respectively p = 0.001. The toxicity profiles were less in ECSF arm than PCF arm especially in neutropenia and mucositis. Median PFS and OS were significantly higher in ECSF arm than PCF (6.9 vs. 4.9 months p= 0.022) and (11.1 vs.8.9 months p = 0.028) respectively.

Conclusion: The use of anthracycline based regimen as first line therapy in advanced gastric cancer showed better outcome and acceptable toxicity when it compared with paclitaxel containing regimen.