Open Access Case Report

Case Report of Prolonged Stable Disease with Modified Schedule Sunitinib in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

Shyam Aggarwal, Sachin Minhas

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/31424

Background: New targeted therapies have revolutionized the treatment landscape of metastatic renal cell carcinoma over the last decade. Sunitinib has demonstrated high activity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), still complete remission is not a common occurrence in patients. In patient achieving complete response, continuation of therapy beyond complete response is debatable.

Cytoreductive nephrectomy has shown to be beneficial in metastatic renal cell carcinoma in patients treated with interferon. However, its role is not established in the targeted therapy era.

Case Presentation: A patient was diagnosed with renal clear cell carcinoma with multiple pulmonary metastases. He underwent cytoreductive nephrectomy and was started Sunitinib post-operatively. He experienced toxicities which were manageable with dose adjustments. He showed significant improvement on sunitinib therapy demonstrating complete response after total 22 months of therapy. After careful consideration and discussion with patient, sunitinib was stopped. The patient continues to be in an excellent condition after having stopped Sunitinib 5 years ago.

Conclusions: This case highlights that complete response can be achieved by sunitinib post cytoreductive nephrectomy with good quality of life and manageable toxicities. The case also highlights that discontinuation of therapy can be an option for some patients.

Open Access Case study

Mucosal Melanoma of the Sino-nasal Tract - A Rare Case Report

Vinita Trivedi, Syeda Naseera, Manashi Ghosh, Richa Chauhan, A. Muneer, Kaustav Mandal

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/32167

Sino nasal malignant melanoma is a very aggressive and rare neoplasm of the head and neck region. Less than 2% of all mucosal melanomas originate from the sino-nasal region demanding a high index of suspicion to diagnose these tumours. The patients developing sino-nasal melanomas are usually in their sixties and seventies. These patients often present in an advanced stage due to its nature of rapid progression associated with non-specific symptoms. The present case report highlights a rare case of malignant melanoma of the maxillary sinus, involving orbit in a 56 years old male patient.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Kirsten Sarcoma Viral Gene Mutations in Non-neoplastic and Neoplastic Nodular Lesions of Thyroid in Pakistan

Farheen Jafri, Shahnaz Imdad Kehar, Kaniz Zehra Abbas

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/32499

Objectives: To assess KRAS mutations in non-neoplastic and neoplastic nodular lesions of thyroid as the incidence of KRAS mutations in thyroid lesions in Pakistan has not been evaluated.

Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted at Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi from 2011 to 2014. 70 cases including 6 multinodular goiters, 10 hyperplastic nodules, 10 follicular adenomas, 7 WDT-UMP, 4 follicular carcinomas, 22 classical papillary carcinomas, 11 follicular variant of papillary carcinomas were subjected to standard PCR to detect KRAS mutations located at codon 12 exon 1.

Results: KRAS mutations located at codon 12 exon 1 were found in 02(2.87%) cases of multinodular goiter, 05(7.14%) hyperplastic nodules, 02 (2.87%) follicular adenoma, 03(4.2%) WDT-UMP. Among malignant lesions follicular carcinoma showed KRAS positivity 03(4.2%), classical papillary carcinoma 08(11.42%) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma 07(10%).

Conclusion: Our data suggests strong presence of KRAS mutations in malignant tumors supporting the presence of KRAS mutations in our population particularly follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. Follicular variant is a discrete variant of papillary carcinoma having strong association with KRAS mutations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Level of Awareness on Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self-Examination among Market Women in Ido Community, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Damilola M. Ajayi, Daniel D. Faleti

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/32464

Aim: The study assessed the level of awareness on breast cancer and practice of breast self-examination among market women in Ido community, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Study Design: It made use of a descriptive research design.

Place of Study: The study was conducted at the King’s market arena, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State.

Methodology: A sample size of hundred market women was used using a purposive sampling technique. Hundred questionnaires were printed and distributed. The instrument for data collection used for this study was a self-designed questionnaire consisting of closed and open-ended questions both in English and Yoruba languages. In cases of market women who are illiterate, the questions were read out to them. All questionnaires were collected at the spot to avoid loss and a hundred percent of distributed questionnaires were retrieved. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics i.e. the use of tables and representation in percentages, frequency count, bar chart, pie chart and histogram, thereby summarizing the data into more understandable forms. This was followed by interpretation of data.

Results: It was revealed that majority (60%) of the market women claimed to be aware of breast cancer with medical personnel (51%) being the highest source of awareness with a recorded low history (32%) of breast cancer. Meanwhile, majority are not aware of the causes and symptoms of breast cancer but declared it can endangered the self image of women with majority (42%) not knowing their risk of developing breast cancer. Majority (70%) has heard about breast self-examination but only few (40%) practices it regularly.

Conclusion: Despite several studies done on breast cancer in Nigeria, there is still need for urgent optimization and remodeling of practices towards the prevention of breast cancer. There should be continuous awareness program on breast cancer nationwide. Breast self-examination should also be encouraged for early detection.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Pathological Stage at Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Ghanaian Women: A Retrospective Study at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Accra (2001 to 2014)

E. M. Der, S. E. Quayson, Y. Tettey

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/33006

Background: Published data on breast cancer (BC) in Ghanaian women have not look at the relationships between pathological stage at diagnosis and the other clinico-pathological features. The aim of this study was to describe the relationships between the stage at diagnosis of BC in Ghanaian women and the effects on the other tumours variables.

Material and Methods: We reviewed and pathologically staged (I – IV) 1,317 BCs in our institution. Data were collected on the clinico-pathological features of females diagnosed with BC, entered and analysed using SPSS version 23 (Chicago).

Results: A total of 1,317 (30.4%) out of 4,336 BCs were pathologically staged using the TNM method and 57.4% were of high stage. The mean ages at diagnosis of BC for TNM stages I – IV were: 50.6, 53.3, 51.0 and 52.2 years respectively. The proportions of women aged less than 40 years for stages I – IV were; 15.6%, 16.0%, 18.3% and 18.8%. Women in all the stages presented after 3 months (late) of noticing the swelling. Skin involvement and high histological grades were commoner in stage IV. The frequency of positive tumour margins and the mean number of positive lymph nodes increases with increasing stage at diagnosis.

Conclusion: Women in this study were found to have high pathological stages of BC at diagnosis. The proportions of women less than 40 years old were higher in stages III - IV. Skin involvement, number of positive lymph nodes and positive tumour margins were found to increase with increasing pathological stage at diagnosis.