Open Access Case study

Radiation - Induced Sarcoma: A Case Report

K. Diabate, H. Bakkali, T. Kebdani, B. K. El-Gueddari, N. Benjaafar

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/29776

Objective: Study the epidemiology, histology, time to onset, treatment and prognosis of radiation induced sarcomas.

Observation: We report a case of sarcomas occurring in irradiated area, in a patient treated by external radiotherapy for left orbit cancer

Discussion: Few series of induced radiation sarcoma of the cervical and facial region have been published these over the last twenty last years. Their prevalence is low; several factors are recognized in their carcinogenesis. Genetic predisposition; chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Conclusion: Radiation therapy can induce cancer after a latency period of several years. The risk is low but increases proportionately a longer period of treatment. These radiation induced sarcomas have generally an unfavorable prognosis and their treatment is primarily with surgery.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Papanicoleau Smear Usage and Prevalence of Premalignant Cervical Lesion among Women Living with HIV Attending a Federal Teaching Hospital in South-West Nigeria: A Comparative Study

Aishatu Omoragbon, Olusegun Emmanuel Gabriel, Olabode Muftau Shabi, Oluwaserimi Adewumi Ajetunmobi, Olayide Toyin Elegbede, Segun Mathew Agboola, Adebara Idowu Oluwaseyi

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/33231

Aim: Cancer of the cervix is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, and in Nigeria it is the second most common female cancer. Infection with the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with an increased risk of prevalent, incident and persistent squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) of the cervix. The aim was to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer screening test and the development of premalignant cervical lesions among HIV positive women.

Study Design: A Hospital based comparative cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out in the HIV clinic and general outpatient clinic of Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-ekiti, Ekiti state Nigeria. It was carried out from July to September 2015.

Methodology: The study was carried out among 65 HIV-positive and 65 HIV-negative women.  Data were collected from the interviewees. Participants also had Pap smear. Data collected were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version 19.                                                                                                                                             

Results: The mean age was 39.73 (±8.57) and 40.98 (±10.68) among the HIV positive and negative women respectively. Only 27.7% of the HIV-positive women compared to 56.9% of the HIV negative women had heard of cervical cancer with P= 0.001. The level of awareness of cervical cancer screening test was 15.4% and 50.8% among the HIV positive and negative women respectively (P= 0.001). The prevalence of premalignant cervical lesions among the study and control groups was 26.2% and 16.9% respectively. This showed that premalignant cervical lesion was more prevalent among HIV-positive women though not statistically significant (P=0.201). However, using risk ratio (RR), the risk of developing cervical lesions is 1.55 times more in HIV exposed women than HIV negative women.                                                                      

Conclusion: There is therefore need for the Physicians to use every opportunity to counsel their clients on the need for routine cervical cancer screening especially in adult HIV clinics.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment Outcomes of Skin Melanoma in the Republic of Belarus

A. G. Zhukovets, A. E. Okeanov, P. I. Moiseyev

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/33797

The primary incidence of skin melanoma in the Republic of Belarus over 25 years (from 1991 through 2015) has increased 3.3-fold (from 2.6 to 9.0 per 100,000 population). A higher level of urban population incidence, a large proportion of people affected at the employable age. In 2015 the proportion of prognostically unfavourable pT3-pT4 neoplasms was 38.2%. Metastatic disease was detected in 12.4% of the patients.

Methodology: Material of the paper is based on the data of Belarusian Cancer Registry using the principles of data collection, monitoring and processing recommended by the IARC.

Results: The proportion of stage IB neoplasms made up almost one third of the cases assigned to stage I. Of the cases assigned to stage II, the proportion of neoplasms with a high prognostic index of metastatic spread (T3b-T4b) was more than 70%. The recurrence rate is 15.1% even at melanoma invasion depth of up to 1 mm (with ulceration), while it rises to 32.4% at pT2b. The cumulative 5-year disease-specific survival of all patients in 2005 was 54.1 ± 1.5%, and in 2015 it was 64.0±2.2%.

Conclusion: A strong correlation is observed between survival of patients and the extent of invasion and ulceration of the primary focus. For metastasis-free pT1a melanoma, the 5-year survival was 92.2%, for T1b – 79.9%, for pT2b – 72.5%, for pT3b – 55.1%, for pT4b – 49.1%. According to the Cancer Registry data, ulceration of the primary neoplasm is frequently observed: it amounts to 41.1% of the cases with melanoma invasion depth up to 2 mm (pT2), to 55.9% with 2-4 mm (pT3) and to 76.3% with the tumor thickness of more than 4 mm (pT4).

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Dp103 in Egyptian Patients with Breast Cancer: Prognosis to Lymph Node Metastasis

Heba G. Abd El-Aziz, Shereen S. El-Shaer, Doaa M. Abd El-Latif, M. Gomaa, Mahmoud M. Kamel

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/35052

Background: Dp103 is a multifunctional protein which binds and unwinds RNA secondary structures, therefore plays a vital role in RNA metabolism from birth to death.

Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate both serum levels and tissue expressions of Dp103 and explored their possible roles in lymph node metastasis within breast cancer Egyptian patients.

Methodology: Sixty patients were enrolled in this study; they were subdivided into two groups. First group included forty females newly diagnosed as primary breast cancer their age ranged from 26 to 81 and further subdivided in two groups according to lymph node involvement into twenty two patients without metastatic lymph node and eighteen patients with metastatic lymph node. Second group involved twenty females newly diagnosed as benign breast tumor their age ranged from 32 to 65, in addition to eighteen apparently healthy females aged range from 28 to 65 as controls. Serum level of both Dp103 and MMP-9 were determined using ELISA technique. CA 15.3 and CEA were determined using available commercial kits. Expression level for both Dp103 and NF-κB were estimated using qPCR.

Results: Serum levels of both Dp103 and MMP-9 were significantly higher in primary breast cancer patients when compared to benign tumor and healthy females (p<0.05). As well as, the expression levels of both Dp103 and NF-κB were significantly high in metastatic lymph node when compared to benign tumor and none metastatic lymph node groups (p<0.05). Also, serum levels of both Dp 103 and MMP-9 showed the same pattern of accretion when compared to none metastatic lymph node. Significant positive correlation was found between serum Dp103 in primary breast cancer patients and CA15.3 (r=0.3195 and p= 0.044).

Conclusion: Dp103 might be used as a prognostic biomarker for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Soluble CD25 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Shall We Able to Change the Natural History?

Eman Abdel Sameea, Talaat Zakareya, Khaled Metwaly, Anas Abdel Rahman, Howyda Mohammed Kamal, Wafaa Mohammed Abdalla

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/35735

Background: Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancy related mortality worldwide, it can be curable if detected in early stages. Axiomatically, emergence of a new marker for early prediction of HCC could enable to apply the proper treatment strategy early in the course of the disease and therefore ameliorates the outcome.

Aim: To evaluate the performance of serum soluble CD25 (sCD25) in the prediction of early HCC and compare it to α-fetoprotein (AFP); the classical biomarker of HCC.

Methods: Serum levels of sCD25 and AFP were measured in three groups of population; HCC group (40 patients), cirrhosis without HCC control group (20 patients) and healthy control group (20 patients). HCC group contained 20 early and 20 late stage patients according to Tumor Lymph Node Metastasis (TNM) staging system (stage I/II and III/IV respectively). Levels of both biomarkers were compared in all groups. Predictive yield of both biomarkers for early HCC was evaluated using ROC curve analysis.

Results: Level of sCD25 was significantly higher in patients with HCC than in both cirrhotic controls and healthy controls (P<0.0001and 0.013 respectively). For the presence of HCC, sensitivity and specificity of sCD25 were 90% and 84.2% respectively at a cut-off value of 7 ng/ml (AUC=0.969; P<0.0001). For prediction of early HCC in patients with cirrhosis, the optimal sCD25 cutoff level was 7.15 ng/ml with sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 60% respectively (AUC=0.717; P=0.019) while sensitivity and specificity of AFP were 70% and 85% respectively at a cut-off value of 9.85 ng/ml (AUC=0.781; P=0.002) in the same settings.

Conclusion: sCD25 seems to be a reliable biomarker for early detection of HCC and therefore could enhance the outcome.