Open Access Case study

Ganglioneuroma Involving Deep Facial Structures - A Case Report

Bouvier Francis Valere D’sa, Sohaila Fatima, Nazima Haider

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/38725

Ganglioneuroma is a rare peripheral neuroblastic tumor originating from the neural crest. It is a benign tumor involving posterior mediastinum and retroperitoneum. We present a case of 12-year-old boy who was diagnosed with ganglioneuroma involving deep facial structures -  infratemporal fossa extending to adjacent structures.


Open Access Original Research Article

Induction Chemotherapy as a Predictor for Definitive Treatment in Bulky Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Schedule More Suited to Sub Himalayan Region

Vipul Nautiyal, Saurabh Bansal, Manisa Pattanayak, Deep S. Pruthi, Mushtaq Ahmad, Sunil Saini

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/38073

Purpose: Use of induction chemotherapy (IC) as a predictor for definitive treatment in bulky locally advanced head and neck cancer (LA HNSCC) patients, who are not feasible for any upfront radical treatment in sub-Himalayan population.

Materials and Methods: 33 patients (stage IVA and IVB, T4, N3) LA HNSCC were treated with induction chemotherapy (TP) from April 2013 to August 2015. All patients were considered inoperable or not feasible for upfront radical treatment and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance status was ≤ 2.

All patients were reviewed at multidisciplinary tumor board and considered for initial 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy in view of bulky stage IV LAHNSCC. Subsequent Radical (CTRT or Sx → CT RT) or palliative treatment was decided by tumor board after response assessment of NACT. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS version 16.0) was used for analysis. The response rate, toxicity (accordance with CTCAE vs. 4.02), completion rate of radical treatment post NACT and overall survival was reported.

Results: Median follow up was 22 months (18-26 months). After 3 cycles of IC, 20 patients (60.66%) underwent radical treatment and remaining 13 patients (39.33%) were treated with palliative treatment. Overall grade 2-3 toxicity was seen in 12 patients. No toxicity related mortality was noted. The completion rate of radical treatment post IC was 93.5%. The median OS was 18 month ((95% CI 9.00 to 31.00). Total 16 Patients are alive, in which 11 is disease free. Twelve patients expired and 5 patients were lost to follow up.

Conclusion: Our present experience suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with doublet regime is reasonably well tolerated and feasible in limited resource setting of patients with locally advanced disease who are not fit for upfront radical treatment.


Open Access Original Research Article

Macroscopic & Microscopic Molecular-associated Treatments of Monosodium Glutamate-induced Uterine Fibroid via Aqueous Extract of Ginger Rhizomes: A Study on Adult Female Wistar Rats

A. J. Olanrewaju, J. O. Owolabi, S. Y. Olatunji, E. I. Oribamise, O. I. Omotuyi, A. B. O. Desalu

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/35217

Background: Uterine fibroids are benign (non-cancerous) tumours that develop in the uterus [1,2]. They have been and still are a major reproductive threat to women of child-bearing age especially to those of the African race [3,4]. Ginger has been reported to have anti-tumor, anti-cancerous, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects [5].

Aim: To determine the effects of aqueous ginger extract on Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-induced uterine fibroid in adult female wistar rats.

Study Design: The present study involved the administration of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) to induce uterine fibroid and the preventive and curative effects of aqueous ginger extract on this as seen physically, gross morphologically and histologically. While hormonal measures were carried out to assess the effects of MSG in inducing uterine fibroid in the adult female wistar rats; molecular, macroscopic and microscopic parameters, amongst others, were assessed to evaluate the effects of ginger extract as a preventive and/or curative agent.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Benjamin S. Carson (Snr.) School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria between January 2017 and May 2017.

Methodology: Acclimatization lasted 10 days, after which oral administration of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) and Aqueous ginger extract ensued to determine the prophylactic (Ginger extract for 25 days, followed by MSG for 25 days) and curative (MSG for 25 days, followed by ginger extract for 25 days) effects of ginger on MSG-induced uterine fibroid in adult female wistar rats. Administration lasted 50 days, after which the experimental animals were sacrificed via cervical dislocation, gross anatomical images were captured, uteri specimens were weighed, fixed in 10% formal saline for histological analysis, and molecular studies were also carried out on the uterus to assay Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2).

Results: Uterus of induced animals showed abnormal gross morphology (i.e., uterine fibroid), histology, abnormally high MMP2 levels, increased weight; however the prophylactic and high-dosed curative treatment with ginger extracts mitigated these effects, i.e., ginger extract both prevented the onset of fibroid and ameliorated the effects of MSG thereby reducing fibroid volume.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that ginger can be used as a preventive and curative agent against uterine fibroid and may offer a non-surgical therapy of treating women with fibroids, whilst contributing greatly to knowledge.


Open Access Original Research Article

Pathological Study of Colorectal Cancer in Missan Province

Abbas, Ch. Mraisel, Haitham Hassen Abd

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/36617

Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the worldwide and also ranks as the fifth-leading malignancy and death in Iraq.  This study aimed to provide a present outlook of colorectal diseases among patients with special emphasis on histopathological changes associated CRC in Missan province in Iraq.

Methods: This study was covered the period between (First April – 2015 to First October -2015) and all patient`s data were collected from (50) patients aged between (40 -80 or more) with colon and rectal cancer on basis of age, gender and histopathological diagnosis in AL-Sadder hospital in Missan province.

Results: Colorectal tumors observed high incidence  with ages between (51-60) years old  represented by  (40%) cases,  while the lowest incidence observed in  ages between (40 -50) years in percentage (12%) cases, CRC were more commonly found in men 28(56%) than women 22(44%) in (P < 0.05). Histopathological examination of the tissue specimens show the commonest type of colorectal cancer was Adeno carcinoma in the colon 22(44%) cases, Ulcerative colitis in the colon were represented by 10(20%) cases, Mucinoid adenocacinoma were found in 8(16%) cases, P eutz –jeghers syndrome were found in 3(6%) cases, and Lymphoma in the colon (Lymphoplasmocyte) observed in 7(14 %) cases. In conclusion the incidence of CRC was common in age older than fifty years in this study, commonest type of CRC was adenocarcinoma in colon, and the ulcerative colitis in chronic stage may lead to hyperplastic to the epithelial cells in colon.

Conclusion: Proper implementation of preventive measures such as changing lifestyle factors might enhance control of colorectal disease.


Open Access Original Research Article

Gastric Cancer in Cameroon: Epidemiological Profile and Histopathological Appearance of 574 Cases

Jean Paul Ndamba Engbang, Adrien Paul Atangna, Servais Eloumou, Alan Hasigov, Charles Battoka Ekom, Bruno Djimeli Djougmo, Roger Gilbert Ateba, Godefroy Simo, André Moune, Zacharie Sando, Dominique Noah Noah, Dieudonné Adiogo

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/38729

Objective: To describe the epidemiological and histopathological aspects of stomach cancer in Cameroon.

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive study of histologically confirmed stomach cancers recruited from histopathology laboratories in Cameroon spread over a period of 13 years (2004-2016). The variables studied were: the frequency, age, gender, risk factors, location and histopathologic type.

Results: At the end of our study, 574 cancers of the stomach were recorded. Men were predominantly affected with 312 cases (54.36%), the sex ratio of men to 1.19. The mean age of onset was 52.95 +/- 16.27 years for all sexes, with extremes ranging from 20 months to 92 years. Patients aged between 50 and 59 years were the predominant age group (24.39%) compared to the other groups. Traders and retirees represented the most affected groups with 20.97% and 14.52% respectively. The main risk factors were: chronic Helicobacter gastritis Pylori 59.73%, chronic smoking 16.11% and chronic alcoholism in 7.12%. Upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy and histological examination was the main means of assertion, 84.18%. The antral location was the most represented with 52.67%. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type with 419 cases (72.99).

Conclusion: Gastric cancer is the first malignant tumor of the digestive tract in Cameroon. Its annual frequency increases since 2009. The mean age of onset is 52.95 years with a male predominance. Chronic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori is the main risk factor. The most common histological type is adenocarcinoma.