Open Access Case study

An Immunohistochemistry Proved Extensive Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumour of Lung: Being Treated with Crizotinib

Satadru Biswas, Bidisha Bandyopadhyay, Hambir Chowdhury, Kuntal Ray, Debanti Banerjee, Ritam Joarder, Souvik Paul, Debapriya Mondal, Sukanta Chakraborty, Chhaya Roy

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2018/39255

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumour (IMT) is a rare entity which constitutes 0.04–1.2% of all lung tumours. Though IMT was first described as an ‘Interesting Benign Lung Tumour’, recurrence, the discovery of cytogenetic aberrations, a clonal population of cells and oncogenic protein overexpression establish it as a malignant entity. Because of similar morphology of a number of tumours comprising of spindle cells with inflammatory background only immunohistochemical investigations can conclude the correct final diagnoses. Interestingly, half of IMTs carry rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) locus. Though complete resection is the treatment of choice, ALK positivity opens the door for Crizotinib for the treatment of invasive, unresectable, recurrent IMTs.

We report a case of an aggressive, large IMT of Left Lung with contralateral multiple nodular lung metastasis in a 50 years old male patient. From ALK locus rearrangement, this case is being treated with Crizotinib and patient has improved symptomatically after 8 weeks of treatment.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Concurrent Chemoradiation by Conventional Fractionation versus Concomitant Boost Radiation in Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck

Saurabh Bansal, N. Das, Ajay Gupta, Shweta Mittal

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2018/39016

Introduction: Most of the patients with head and neck cancer present with advanced-stage disease. Randomized studies point to improved therapeutic ratios with altered fractionation schedules with no increase in late toxicity. There is a paucity of data regarding results of altered fractionation from the Indian subcontinent.

Materials and Methods: Sixty patients of histologically proven stage III-IV-A oropharyngeal, laryngeal & hypopharyngeal carcinoma were randomized in two arms. The control arm was treated with conventional fractionation whereas study arm received concomitant boost, both with weekly chemotherapy. Response and toxicity profile were assessed at 6, 12 and 24 weeks post-treatment.

Results: Most of the patients presented in 5th-6th decade of life with oropharynx being the most common site. Majority of patients in both the arms presented with stage IVA disease. Loco-regional control at both primary and nodal sites was similar in both the arms on follow-up. Nodal involvement and stage at presentation adversely affected the outcome. Mucositis was the most common acute toxicity observed and was significantly more in the study arm (p=.0014, SS)  Late toxicity (laryngeal edema, subcutaneous fibrosis, hoarseness of voice) was comparable in the two arms.

Conclusion: In patients with locally advanced unresectable head and neck carcinoma, altered fractionation with concomitant boost is a feasible schedule with acceptable toxicities. The compliance to therapy is high, and the loco-regional control achieved compares favourably with concurrent chemo-radiation by conventional fractionation with weekly cisplatin. However, pooling of data from different centers has been advocated to derive conclusive results.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Colon Cancers: Epidemiological and Histopathological Aspects in Cameroon

Jean Paul Ndamba Engbang, Amadou Fewou, Alan Hasigov, Ornel Daniel Njel, Bruno Djimeli Djougmo, Roger Gilbert Ateba, Simo Godefroy, André Moune, Dieudonné Adiogo, Jean Louis Oyono Essame

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2018/38860

Objective: To determine the epidemiological and histological profile of colon cancer in Cameroon.

Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective descriptive and analytical study on cancers of the colon, histologically proven for 13 years (2004-2016), listed in the registers laboratories of pathology and Oncology of the national territory. The variables studied were the frequency, age, gender, risk factors, location and histopathologic type.

Results: We identified 1047 cases of digestive cancers. The colon with 366 cases (26. 01%) was the second most common location behind the stomach. The average age of the patients was 52. 82 ± 15. 92 years, with extremes ranging from 6 to 89 years old. The male was the most represented with 52. 73% (193 cases), with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1.12. A tumour was sigmoid localisation in 37. 59% of the cases (100 cases on 266 listed locations). Adenocarcinomas were the first histological type with 311 cases (84. 97%) followed by the Kaposi Sarcoma (21 cases; 5.74 percent) and lymphomas (17 cases; 4.65%).

Conclusion: Colon cancers remain a relatively common pathology in Cameroon where it ranks second among malignant tumours of the digestive tract. Women remain less affected than men by this pathology whose dominant histological type is adenocarcinoma. However, these data remain relative given the absence of a cancer register at the national level.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Specific Human Papillomavirus Genotypes Isolated from Cervical Cancer Specimens in Calabar, Nigeria

Godstime I. Irabor, Dominic Akpan, Ejemen Aigbe, Kenneth A. Omoruyi, Uche Amaechi, Ayodele J. Omotoso, Martin A. Nnoli

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2018/39085

Aim: To determine specific human papillomavirus genotypes isolated from cervical cancer specimens in Calabar, Nigeria.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study of archival paraffin-embedded tissue block of invasive cervical cancer specimen.

Study Place and Period: This study was done at the department of pathology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar for cervical cancer specimen between January 2006 and December 2014.

Methodology: Paraffin-embedded tissue block of invasive cervical cancer specimen from the study period (January 2006 to December 2014) were collected. Primary socio-demographic data were obtained from medical records in the department (such as surgical pathology register, histopathology request forms). Sections of the tissue were obtained from the blocks. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted and a polymerase chain reaction was done. Then DNA enzyme immunoassay and reverse hybridisation line probe assay were performed for human papillomavirus DNA detection and specific HPV genotyping.

Results: Two hundred and forty-two cervical cancer specimens were analysed. The age range of the subjects is between 32 and 78 years with a mean age of 47.4 years.  Two hundred and twenty-one (91.30%) of these samples were HPV DNA positive. Seven high-risk HPV (hrHPV) genotypes were isolated from these specimens which include types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 59 and 68/73.

The prevalence of the specific HPV genotype in invasive cervical cancer specimens are as follows: type 16 has the highest prevalence of 34%, followed by type 31 with a prevalence of 31.2%, type 18 with a prevalence of 16.3%, type 33(8.3%), Type 35(7.7%), Type 59(4.1%) and type 68/73 has the least prevalence of 1.8%. Multiple infections represented 4.10% of all the HPV DNA positive samples. Various infections with types 16 and 31 have a prevalence of 2.7% while multiple infections with types 16 and 35 have a prevalence of 1.4%.

Conclusion: The knowledge of the prevalent high-risk HPV in cervical cancer in our environment would enhance the development of a more appropriate and effective vaccine against HPV involved in the aetiology of cervical cancer.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Diet of Benghazi Cancer Patients; Quality and Associated Factors

Faiza Nouh, Ehdaa Ibrahim Mekraz, Mariam Omar, Manal Younis, Moftah Younis

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2018/38880

Dietary habits and food consumption patterns in Libya have changed markedly during the past three decades and the Libyan cancer patients are not exception. There has been great move from traditional dishes and foods to more westernized food style, which is characterized by high sugar, high total fats, high cholesterol, high sodium and low fiber. The interaction of dietary intake, nutritional status and cancer is multifaceted and complex. This paper presents a cross-sectional study which aims to investigate the quality of diet among cancer patients in Benghazi. The total studied sample was 400 cancer patients, (27.8%) were males and (72.2%) were females. Mean age ± Standard Deviation were 52.8 years ± 11.5. (6.8%) of the subjects had poor diet quality, while (60%) of the subjects their diet need improvement, only (33.2%) had diet with good quality. Age, income level, food intolerances and allergies, food dislike, eating out, and food preferences were associated with quality of diet among cancer patients in Benghazi. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest consumption score, while sodium and cholesterol had the highest consumed score. All these factors call for community based intervention and prevention strategies.