Open Access Original Research Article

To Study and Compare the Relationship between Preoperative Serum TSH and Frequency of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

S. Zahir Hussain, Muhamed Faizal Ayub, M. P. Kumaran, Sai Vishnupriya

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2018/42759

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) plays a key role in the growth and development of thyroid cells and also regulates the function of the thyroid gland. Apart from the multiple risk factors for thyroid cancer like age, male gender, exposure to ionizing radiation and family history of thyroid cancer, higher TSH levels have also been linked to increase the chances of thyroid cancer. This study is performed in a tertiary care hospital over 3 years with 338 samples amongst which 82 patients had DTC and 256 patients had benign thyroid nodules. Serum TSH level was measured by automated enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA) technique. Biomerieux mini-Vidas hormonal analyzer was used to measure the hormone levels, and the reference ranges were stratified into 4 different groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22 version software. Chi-square test was used as a test of significance and p-value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. As a conclusion, it can be said that no significant association between higher TSH level and DTC were found. Several authors have investigated the relationship but the results have been inconsistent. A prospective study with a large sample size will be needed for further outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Breast Cancer Awareness, Knowledge and Screening Uptake among Female Secondary Schools Teachers in Owerri, Nigeria

Chinomnso C. Nnebue, Uche M. Umeh, Prince C. Ekezie, Gift O. Ekeh, Augustine I. Ekpe, Emmanuel C. Okodo

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2018/42635

Background: Teachers as key stakeholders play vital roles in the prevention and control of diseases and health-related conditions in schools and communities. Assessment of breast cancer awareness, knowledge and screening practices among them could improve intervention strategies.

Objective: To determine the breast cancer awareness, knowledge and screening practices among female secondary schools teachers in Owerri,, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 284 female secondary schools teachers in Owerri Nigeria selected by a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured self-administered questionnaire and were analysed with a statistical package for social sciences version 22.0. Statistical significance were identified using Fisher Exact and Chi-square tests at p value ≤ 0.05.

Results: Majority of respondents, 273 (96.1%) were aware of breast cancer. The key sources of information include: 111 (39.1%) health workers, 87 (30.6%) TV/Radio, The level of knowledge of breast cancer was poor, thus: 3(7.7%) aged 50-59; 8(3.3%) tertiary education attainment (p=0.000); 9(4.3%) currently married. Then, 236(90.1%) of them were aware of BSE, 199(70.1%), CBE and 120(42.3%), mammography. About 209(71.5%) reported ever practiced BSE (mostly the currently married (p= 0.021); 79 (27.8%), CBE and 45 (15.8%), mammography.

Conclusions: This study found overall high awareness, poor knowledge of breast cancer and poor screening uptake. We recommend periodic but sustained quality health education programs targeted at improving awareness, knowledge of breast cancer and screening uptake among these teachers.


Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Intervention in Children Undergoing Chemotherapy for Cancer

Charles Apprey, Reginald A. Annan, Fareed K. N. Arthur, Christopher Larbie, Alex O. Akoto

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2018/43197

This non-randomised controlled study investigated the effect of a Soy Milk Powder (SMP) on nutritional status, recovery and survival of children undergoing chemotherapy for Burkitt's Lymphoma and Wilms Tumour in Kumasi, Ghana. The intervention group received the supplement, which provided 80% of their Recommended Daily Allowance for protein per day for 6 months. Compliance, nutritional impact and survival at 1 year were monitored. Sixty-four children (32 each in intervention and non-intervention) were recruited using consecutive sampling. The two groups were similar at baseline, but at 3 and 6 months follow up, all the anthropometric parameters: TSF (p=0.008), MUAC (p=0.003), BMI (p=0.013) and MAC (p=0.026), except weight and height significantly increased in the intervention group. Serum zinc (p=0.021) and Hb (p=0.023) also increased significantly in the intervention group. No intervention child had low BMI-for-age nor low MUAC, compared with 18.1% and 13.6% respectively, in the non-intervention. Low Hb (from 100% to 15.8%), reduced glutathione (from 21.9% to 0%) and zinc deficiency (87.5% to 52.6%) also reduced. At the one year follow up, 47% recovered and 19% died in the intervention group, compared with 16% recovery and 28% mortality in the non-intervention (p<0.001). In conclusion, SMP improved nutritional parameters and survival in children with cancer.


Open Access Original Research Article

Primary Gastrointestinal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Diagnosed after Emergency Surgery

Murat Akici, Çiğdem Özdemir, Murat Cilekar, Ramazan Serdar Arslan

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2018/43771

Aim: The present retrospective study aims to evaluate the data of 15 patients who required immediate surgical intervention because of obstruction and/or perforation due to primary gastrointestinal Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Methods: Patients who underwent surgical intervention due to gastrointestinal system bleeding, radiological evidence of perforation or intestinal obstruction and subsequently diagnosed with gastrointestinal lymphoma at Department of General Surgery, Kocatepe University during August 2007 to September 2016 were examined retrospectively. Their medical records, clinical histories, symptoms, pathological reports, and treatment modalities were analysed.

Results: There were 15 patients with primary gastrointestinal system lymphomas (male: 8, female: 7) with their mean age of 69.7 years (40-90). Tumors were determined in stomach for 7 (46.7%) patients (Kardia: 3, Antrum: 3, Corpus: 1), in jejunum for one (6.6%), in ileum for 4 (26.7%), in right colon for 2 (13.3%), and in multiple organ involvement for one patient (6.6%). Clinical manifestations were nausea and/or vomiting in 7 patients (46.6%); loss of appetite in 8 patients (53.3%); abdominal pain in 11 patients (73.3%); and weight loss in 10 patients (66.6%). The most common pathological subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (86.6%). All 15 patients underwent surgical treatment and received postoperative chemotherapy. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 68 months (24-108 months). Only one patient (6.6%) died in the postoperative period.

Conclusion: Initial presentation of primary gastrointestinal tract Non-Hodgkin lymphoma may be an obstruction, bleeding, or perforation. Clinicians and surgeons should keep this in mind while assessing the patients with mechanic bowel obstruction.


Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and Its Risk Factors, Attitudes and Practices towards Pap Smear Screening among Students in the University of Buea, Cameroon

G. E. Halle-Ekane, D. K. Nembulefack, G. E. Orock, P. N. Fon, A. A. Tazinya, P. M. Tebeu

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2018/43965

Introduction: Cancer of the cervix is the second most common gynaecological malignancy and the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in Cameroon. Knowledge and attitudes toward cervical cancer screening depend largely on gender and educational level. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of cervical cancer and the attitudes and practices towards Pap smear screening among male and female university students.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that involved 416 students, carried-out from February to May 2017 among students of the University of Buea, Cameroon. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire and analysed using Epi-Info version 7. Statistical significance was set at P-value <0.05.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 22.08 (± 4.03) years. Up to 82.2% of participants had heard about cervical cancer. Only 25.2% of participants had “good” knowledge of cervical cancer. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall knowledge between gender (P=0.81); however, there was an association between having “good” knowledge and being a health science student (P<0.001). About two-thirds of the students knew that having multiple sexual partners was a risk factor of cervical cancer, while more than 50%, could not identify early sexual intercourse, smoking, family history, and multiple deliveries as risk factors. Only 4.8% of the female students had had a Pap smear. The low uptake was attributed to barriers: the cost of screening, lack of information on screening programs, fear, and beliefs that pap smear screening is painful. Conclusions:  Knowledge of cervical cancer among university students was poor without a gender difference. Uptake of Pap smear screening was very low. We, therefore, recommend more health education and prevention programs targeting male and female students.