Open Access Original Research Article
Background Data: The supraorbital eyebrow approach is a minimally invasive keyhole technique that offers wide access to the anterior skull base and parasellar region using the subfrontal corridor, with assistances of neuroendoscopy The approach through the eyebrow permits access to a number of lesions in the subfrontal corridor with minimal brain retraction and a much smaller area of potential injury of main structures.
Study Design: This study is a follow up study.
Objective: To evaluate the role of supraorbital endoscopic approach for tumors of anterior and middle skull base.
Patients and Methods: All the operations were performed at Suez Canal University hospitals, in about 24 months, the first 30 patients having tumors of anterior and middle skull base fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in this prospective study.
Results: Endoscopy can play an important role in improving visualization through the keyhole corridor. With the use of neuroendoscopy, the reach of this approach may be extended even further to include the pituitary fossa, the top third of the clivus, the interpeduncular cistern, the anterior third ventricle, and the medial and anterior temporal lobe and middle fossa.The major advantage of the supraorbital over the endonasal route is a simplified skull base closure and reduced risk of postoperative CSF leak. It is a valuable approach for selected patients. Neuromonitoring may further increase surgical safety.
Conclusion: The approach through the eyebrow permits access to a number of lesions in the subfrontal corridor With the use of the assisstence of neuroendoscopy, with minimal brain retraction and a much smaller area of potential injury of anatomical structures.
Open Access Original Research Article
Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed solid tumor among men. Genetic susceptibility had been proposed among the risk factors for the development of this cancer.
Aim: To investigate the effect of androgen receptor gene polymorphism in the susceptibility of prostate cancer among Sudanese patients.
Methods: This study was conducted in Khartoum State during the period from December 2021 to May 2022. The study population that was selected consisted of one hundred patients, who had prostate cancer, who attended for routine follow-up assessment following their chemotherapy treatment. A total of 5 ml EDTA anti-coagulated venous blood samples were obtained from all participants. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was measured by competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. DNA extraction was performed for all samples by chemical method and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP method using Eco147I enzyme.
Results: The Androgen receptor genotype showed that wild (G/G) type was more frequent (89%) than heterozygous (G/A) type (11%), and allele G was more frequent (94.5%) than allele A (5.5%). The mean serum PSA level among prostate cancer patients was 18.71+31.68 ng/ml. Comparison of the mean serum PSA levels between different AR genotypes revealed no significant association between the genotype and the hormonal level (p. values > 0.05).
Conclusion: Androgen receptor gene polymorphism was detected in this study population as heterozygous type. Moreover; there was no significant association between AR genotype and serum PSA level.
Open Access Review Article
Osteoradionecrosis of the jaws (ORNJ) is a severe radiotherapy (RT) complication that occurs in 2% to 22% of individuals with head and neck cancers (HNC) who are treated with RT or concurrent chemo-RT. The accurate diagnosis of ORNJ is crucial for appropriate and prompt management. On the other hand, various ORNJ stages can resemble osteomyelitis, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), and tumor recurrences. This challenging situation is primarily due to the clinical and radiologic similarities between ORNJ and these non-RT-related conditions. Image analysis techniques such as panoramic imaging (PI), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bone scintigraphy, positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission CT (SPECT) might help to avoid diagnostic obstacles. Despite the fact that the general characteristics of ORNJ have been reported in the literature, there is no clear consensus on its definitive diagnosis. Therefore, the current review aims to address ORNJ and its clinical and radiological aspects, as well as provide evidence to inform on the approaches to be used in removing the complexity in diagnosis, with a specific focus on radiological and nuclear medicine techniques.