Open Access Case study

A Case Report of Management of Multiple Peri-orbital Cysts (Eccrine Hidrocystoma) in a 35-Year Old Woman

E. S. Amadi, M. N. Amaewhule, C. Okejim

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jcti/2022/v12i430182

Background: Hidrocystoma is a rare benign swelling(tumour) of sweat glands also known as the cystic form of hidroadenoma, cystadenomas, sudoriferous cysts, and Moll’s gland. It has no racial or sex predilection. Its rarity and site of occurrence makes its management challenging due to limitation in knowledge of making diagnosis, treatment, availability of drugs and interventions and aesthetic concerns.

Presentation of Case: A 35 year old Nigerian woman from the Igbo ethnic group with tertiary level of education who presented to the dermatology outpatient clinic with a 10 year history of recurrent peri-orbital swelling associated with occasional pruritus. There was no history of similar lesion in any family member. Patient had resorted to self-medication and consulted different doctors prior to being referred to the dermatologist. Her physical examination was normal. She was also counselled about the disease and management options. She subsequently received seven sessions of the chemo-ablation using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) with remarkable improvement and has had no recurrence of lesions for the past 1 year.

Conclusion: Hidrocystomas can be successfully treated in our environment.

Open Access Case study

A Rare Breast Carcinosarcoma in a Young Female

Mohammad Al-Share, Michleen Al-Awabdeh, Maysaa Al-Khalaileh, Mohammad Abu-Jeyyab, Hanan Al-Asbahi

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 30-34
DOI: 10.9734/jcti/2022/v12i430185

Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) is a rare aggressive type of breast cancer, as this form of cancer makes up only 1% of overall breast cancers. It mainly presents with a rapid-growing mass.  Establishing the diagnosis is based on histopathology, as imaging studies show the same features as other types of breast cancer. The treatment protocol for MBC is similar to those for invasive ductal carcinomas owing to the lack of standardized management modality for metaplastic breast cancer per se.   

Open Access Case study

A Rare Case Report of Radionecrosis Mandible after Irradiation for Breast Cancer

Akhilesh Prathap, George Varghese, R. S. Nidhin, Geethu Philo Varghese, R. B. Aiswarya

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 51-58
DOI: 10.9734/jcti/2022/v12i430188

Management of irradiated patients with cancer in the head and neck region is a challenging scenario. Radiotherapy promotes cellular and vascular insufficiency that results in a low response rate in the healing. Consequently, surgical procedures in irradiated tissues present high rates of complication. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is the most severe sequelae caused by radiotherapy. ORN can occur due to multiple reasons, of which periodontal disease, traumatic injury induced by ill-fitting dentures and trauma after surgery or tooth extraction are the most common. The management of this side effect is difficult and can result in bone or soft tissue loss, affecting the quality of life since majority of patients with ORN have various comorbidities associated. In this article we present a case report of osteoradionecrosis secondary to irradiation for breast cancer which is not frequently reported in literature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Endoscopic Assisted Supraorbital Approach for Tumors of Anterior and Middle Skull Base

Mohamed E. Shamia, Ahmed M. Abdelmonem, Tariq Awad, Nader E. Negm, Medhat M. Kamal

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 6-25
DOI: 10.9734/jcti/2022/v12i430183

Background Data: The supraorbital eyebrow approach is a minimally invasive keyhole technique that offers wide access to the anterior skull base and parasellar region using the subfrontal corridor, with assistances of neuroendoscopy The approach through the eyebrow permits access to a number of lesions in the subfrontal corridor with minimal brain retraction and a much smaller area of potential injury of main structures.

Study Design: This study is a follow up study.

Objective: To evaluate the role of supraorbital endoscopic approach for tumors of anterior and middle skull base.

Patients and Methods: All the operations were performed at Suez Canal University hospitals, in about 24 months, the first 30 patients having tumors of anterior and middle skull base fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in this prospective study.

Results: Endoscopy can play an important role in improving visualization through the keyhole corridor. With the use of neuroendoscopy, the reach of this approach may be extended even further to include the pituitary fossa, the top third of the clivus, the interpeduncular cistern, the anterior third ventricle, and the medial and anterior temporal lobe and middle fossa.The major advantage of the supraorbital over the endonasal route is a simplified skull base closure and reduced risk of postoperative CSF leak. It is a valuable approach for selected patients. Neuromonitoring may further increase surgical safety.

Conclusion: The approach through the eyebrow permits access to a number of lesions in the subfrontal corridor With the use of the assisstence of neuroendoscopy, with minimal brain retraction and a much smaller area of potential injury of anatomical structures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Sudanese Patients of Prostate Cancer in Khartoum State

Jumaa Abuajila Salem Salama, Dawelbiet Abdelaal Yahia, Mohamed Maysara Ali, Ahmed Elhadi Elsadig, Tarig A. M. Hamid

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 26-29
DOI: 10.9734/jcti/2022/v12i430184

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed solid tumor among men. Genetic susceptibility had been proposed among the risk factors for the development of this cancer.

Aim: To investigate the effect of androgen receptor gene polymorphism in the susceptibility of prostate cancer among Sudanese patients.

Methods: This study was conducted in Khartoum State during the period from December 2021 to May 2022. The study population that was selected consisted of one hundred patients, who had prostate cancer, who attended for routine follow-up assessment following their chemotherapy treatment. A total of 5 ml EDTA anti-coagulated venous blood samples were obtained from all participants. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was measured by competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. DNA extraction was performed for all samples by chemical method and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP method using Eco147I enzyme.

Results: The Androgen receptor genotype showed that wild (G/G) type was more frequent (89%) than heterozygous (G/A) type (11%), and allele G was more frequent (94.5%)  than allele A (5.5%). The mean serum PSA level among prostate cancer patients was 18.71+31.68 ng/ml. Comparison of the mean serum PSA levels between different AR genotypes revealed no significant association between the genotype and the hormonal level (p. values > 0.05).

Conclusion: Androgen receptor gene polymorphism was detected in this study population as heterozygous type. Moreover; there was no significant association between AR genotype and serum PSA level.

Open Access Review Article

Diagnostic Challenges in Osteoradionecrosis of the Jaw

Busra Yilmaz, Efsun Somay, Ahmet Kucuk, Erkan Topkan

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 35-50
DOI: 10.9734/jcti/2022/v12i430187

Osteoradionecrosis of the jaws (ORNJ) is a severe radiotherapy (RT) complication that occurs in 2% to 22% of individuals with head and neck cancers (HNC) who are treated with RT or concurrent chemo-RT. The accurate diagnosis of ORNJ is crucial for appropriate and prompt management. On the other hand, various ORNJ stages can resemble osteomyelitis, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), and tumor recurrences. This challenging situation is primarily due to the clinical and radiologic similarities between ORNJ and these non-RT-related conditions. Image analysis techniques such as panoramic imaging (PI), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bone scintigraphy, positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission CT (SPECT) might help to avoid diagnostic obstacles. Despite the fact that the general characteristics of ORNJ have been reported in the literature, there is no clear consensus on its definitive diagnosis. Therefore, the current review aims to address ORNJ and its clinical and radiological aspects, as well as provide evidence to inform on the approaches to be used in removing the complexity in diagnosis, with a specific focus on radiological and nuclear medicine techniques.