Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Midkine in Predicting Malignancy in Patient with Solitary Thyroid Nodule

Nesma A. Ibrahim, Ahmed M. Hamam

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jcti/2019/v9i230102

Background: Solitary thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem. None of sonographic features is sufficient to discard or detect malignancy efficiently. Midkine is a novel heparin-binding growth factor, plays critical roles in carcinogenesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate serum midkine levels in patients with solitary thyroid nodules to predict malignancy.

Methods: A total of 100 patients who had solitary thyroid nodules were enrolled in the study. Serum midkine levels were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done to all nodules (25 suspicious/ malignant and 75 benign).

Results: Serum midkine levels were significantly higher in patients who had nodules with the following sonographic features; hypoechoic nodules compared to isoechoic and hyperechoic nodules (P=0.024), nodules with microcalcification compared to nodules with macrocalcification or without calcification (P = 0.011), nodules with irregular borders compared to nodules with regular borders (P = 0.014) and nodules more than 2 cm in length than shorter ones (P = 0.011). Serum midkine levels were also higher in nodules with absent halo compared to those with clear halo but with no significant difference (P = 0.660). Also, levels of serum medikine were significantly higher in suspicious/ malignant nodules than in benign nodules (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Serum midkine can predict malignancy in solitary thyroid nodule and also well correlated with sonographic features of thyroid nodules. We suggest that midkine levels may serve as a novel biochemarker in association with sonographic features in evaluation of solitary thyroid nodules.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changing Histopathological Pattern of Paediatric Malignant Tumours Seen at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, North-Central, Nigeria

Daniel Yakubu, Innocent Emmanuel, Jagshak Barnabas Mandong, Mandong Barnabas Mafala

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jcti/2019/v9i230103

Background: Childhood cancer is attracting public health attention in Sub-Saharan Africa because of its’ increasing contribution to morbidity and mortality, and the changing pattern in relative frequency and diagnostic challenges in resources poor settings. The objective of the study was to determine the pattern of malignant childhood tumours in Jos, North-central Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: Records of childhood malignancies diagnosed over a 10 year period was obtained from the hospital cancer registry. Archival paraffin embedded, formalin fixed tissue blocks were retrieved and fresh sections cut and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. The slides were reviewed and the histopathological pattern, age, sex and anatomical site of distribution of the tumours were analyzed.

Results: There were 210 cases of childhood malignancies during the period of the study. The male: female ratio was 1.5:1. Mesenchymal tumours predominated (66%), followed by epithelial tumours (32%) and germ cell tumors which accounted for 2% of cases. Soft tissue sarcomas, lymphomas, nephroblastoma and retinoblastoma were the four most common tumours. Together they accounted for 88% of all cases. Soft tissue sarcoma was the most common tumour group with 77 cases (37%). Rhabdomyosarcoma was the most common of them accounting for 88% of the soft tissue sarcomas. The second most common group of tumours was lymphoma 52(25%) cases: out of which Burkitt’s lymphoma accounted for 64%, non Burkitts non Hodkins lymphomas 31% while Hodgkins Lymphoma had 6%. Retinoblastoma and nephroblastoma occurred among the very young children while STS and lymphomas predominated in the older children.

Conclusion: There is a change in the histopathological pattern of childhood solid malignancies in our environment. Sarcomas are diagnosed more often, a departure from the past where lymphomas were commoner. However Burkitt’s lymphoma is still an important and common childhood cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Chemotherapy on Clinical, Haematological and Biochemical Profile in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy at Cape Coast Teaching Hospital; A Longitudinal Study

Rebecca Peniel Storph, Frank N. Ghartey, Richard K. D. Ephraim, Enoch Mensah, Martin Mornah, Linda Ahenkorah-Fondjo, David L. Simpong, Charlotte Addai, Bright Kobena Segu Domson, Joseph Benjamin Baidoo, Patrick Adu

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jcti/2019/v9i230104

Background: People with primary invasive breast cancer receive both local (surgery and radiation therapy) and systemic treatment (chemotherapy and hormonal therapy). However, there are substantial short-and long-term side effects from chemotherapy as documented in several studies. This study assessed the effects of chemotherapy on clinical, haematological and biochemical profile of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital.

Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted in the female surgical ward of the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH). We randomly sampled 51 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and scheduled to start chemotherapy and recorded their demographic, clinical and therapeutic data. Blood was collected for haematological profiles [haemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC) count, platelets (PLT) and biochemical analysis (lipid profile, uric acid and creatinine) for day 1, day 21 and day 42 of their chemotherapy cycles.

Results: Majority of the participants were within 46-60 years, married, overweight and had informal employment. Throughout chemotherapy cycles, systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased till after the third cycle (P=0.026), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) significantly decreased after second cycle but increased slightly after the third cycle (P=0.029). Hemoglobin though insignificant, decreased after the second cycle but increased sharply after the third cycle (P=0.281). White blood cells (WBC) significantly decreased throughout cycles (P=0.008) whereas high density lipoprotein (P=0.014) increased throughout cycles- Uric acid (P=0.852) and creatinine (P=1.000). were maintained throughout cycles

Conclusion: Throughout cycles, chemotherapy had significant adverse effect on the clinical profile (systolic and diastolic blood pressure), white blood cells (WBC) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) in patients undergoing treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proportions of Pre-Cancerous Cervical Lesions and Its Associated Factors among Women Clients in the Age Group of 30-49yrs in Gynecology Ward of Dessie Referral Hospital and FGAE, North-East Ethiopia, 2016

Kibir Temesgen, Amare Workie, Tenagnework Dilnessa, Mengistu Abate

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jcti/2019/v9i230105

Introduction: Globally, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women; in 2008 there were an estimated 530,000 new cases and more than 270,000 women die from it [1]. In Ethiopia, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer following breast cancer and the leading cause of death from cancer. Annually, an estimated number of 4648 women develop the cancer and 3,235 die from it. Low-resource countries experience 85% of the global burden and in regions such as Eastern Africa and South-Central Asia. Low perception of risks and lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening amongst women and challenges of access to cervical cancer screening for early detection of disease have been reported amongst factors responsible for increasing incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer in developing countries [2].

Objective: The general objective of this study was to determine the proportions of cervical precancerous lesions and to assess associated factors among women clients (30-49) in Gynecology OPD of Dessie referral hospital and FGAE, 2016.

Methods: An institution based cross-sectional study design involving quantitative method was employed. For the quantitative survey 422 women in the age group of 30-49 were participated. The sample size was computed by using single population proportion formula for finite population with 95% confidence level, prevalence of 50% and marginal error of 2%. Pretested and structured questionnaire was used in order to facilitate reliable response. Questionnaires for each item were adapted from previously done similar studies. Pretest was done on five percent of study population.

Results: Among 422 study participants who were currently screened, 390(92.4%) were negative for cervical precancerous lesions when tested by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), 29(6.9%) were positive for cervical precancerous lesions and 3(0.7%) were suspicious for cancer. The majority (69.9%) of the study subjects did not ever screen for cervical cancer in their life time. Concerning the reasons for not screening, 98(33.3%) of them said that it is painful while 54(18.3%) and 37(12.5%) of them said I am health and it is expensive respectively.

Conclusion: The proportion of cervical precancerous lesion was 6.9%. In multivariate regression analysis increased age(>46), high parity(>4), first intercourse at <20 years, having > two sexual partners, positive HIV status, History of Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, History of sexually transmitted infection (STI), Smoking, History of abortion, nonuse of condom and family history of cervical cancer were significantly associated with the development of cervical precancerous lesions.

Open Access Review Article

Immunomodulatory Fungi: An Alternative for the Treatment of Cancer

Diana Lorena Nieto-Mosquera, Hugo Ramiro Segura-Puello, Juan Sebastian Segura-Charry, Diana Milena Muñoz-Forero, Andrea Catalina Villamil-Ballesteros

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jcti/2019/v9i230106

The present study aims to determine the role of immunomodulatory fungi for the treatment of cancer as an alternative way. Mushrooms have been part of human culture for thousands of years, many cultures especially from the East, recognized that the extracts of certain fungi could have great health benefits. Recent research has focused on identifying compounds that can modulate, positively or negatively, the biological responses of immune cells. These compounds stimulate immunity, and not only for the treatment of cancer, but also for immunodeficiency diseases; for drug-induced generalized immune suppression; for therapy combined with antibiotics and as adjuvant for vaccines. The medicinal mushrooms are considered as immunomodulators, they are able to regulate the immune system. A diverse collection of bioactive polysaccharides, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and proteoglycans have an effect on the proliferation and differentiation of immune cells and cytokines. Different purified polysaccharides have had clinical use in Japan, China, and Korea for many years, without reports of negative effects in the short term or in the long term. Different studies have shown that the application of polysaccharide extracts can have a cancer prevention effect and a restriction of tumor metastasis; they have also been used to treat microbial and viral infections, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.